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Chapter One. An Introduction to Networking. Objectives. List advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing Identify elements of a network Describe several specific uses of a network. Objectives. Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks

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chapter one

Chapter One

An Introduction

to Networking

objectives
Objectives
  • List advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing
  • Identify elements of a network
  • Describe several specific uses of a network
objectives1
Objectives
  • Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks
  • Identify some of the certifications available to networking professionals
  • Identify kinds of non-technical, or “soft,” skills to help in succeeding as a networking professional
networks and standalone computers
Networks and Standalone Computers
  • Network
    • Group of computers and other devices connected by some type of transmission media
    • Networks enable users to share devices and data, collectively called a network’s resources
  • Standalone computer
    • Uses programs and data only from its local disks and is not connected to a network
sneakernet
Sneakernet
  • Method of sharing data by copying it to a disk and carrying the disk from computer to computer

Figure 1-1: Data sharing before the advent of networks

local and remote computers
Local and Remote Computers
  • Local computer
    • Computer on which user is working
  • Remote computer
    • Computer that user controls or works on via network connection
peer to peer network
Peer-to-Peer Network
  • Computers communicate on single segment of cable and share each other’s data and devices
  • Simple example of a local area network (LAN)

Figure 1-2: Simple peer-to-peer network

local area network lan
Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Network of computers and other devices confined to relatively small space
  • LANs involving many computers are usually server-based
    • On a server-based network, special computers (known as servers) process data for and facilitate communication between other computers on the network (known as clients)
networking basics
Networking Basics
  • Workstation
    • Computer that typically runs a desktop operating system and connects to a network
  • Client/server architecture
    • Networking model in which clients use central server to share applications, devices, and data
networking basics1
Networking Basics
  • Client/server network
    • Network based on client/server architecture
  • Network operating system
    • Special software designed to manage data and other resources on a server for a number of clients
networking basics2
Networking Basics

Figure 1-3: LAN with a file server

networking basics3
Networking Basics

Figure 1-4: An example of a complex network

advantages of server based over peer to peer networks
Advantages of Server-Based over Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • User login accounts and passwords can be assigned in one place
  • Access to multiple shared resources can be centrally granted
  • Servers are optimized to handle heavy processing loads and dedicated to handling requests from clients
  • Servers can connect more than a handful of computers
mans and wans
MANs and WANs
  • Metropolitan area network (MAN)
    • Network connecting clients and servers in multiple buildings within limited geographic area
  • Wide area network (WAN)
    • Network that spans large distance and connects two or more LANs
    • The Internet is an example of a very intricate and extensive WAN that spans the globe
slide15
WAN

Figure 1-5: A simple WAN

elements common to all server based networks
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks
  • Client
    • In addition to referring to a computer on the network, may also refers to human user of client workstation
  • Server
  • Workstation
  • Network interface card (NIC)
    • Enables workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers
elements common to all server based networks1
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

Figure 1-6: A network interface card (NIC)

elements common to all server based networks2
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks
  • Network operating system (NOS)
  • Host
    • Server that manages shared resources
  • Node
    • Client, server, or other device that can communicate over a network and that is identified by a unique identifying number, known as its network address
elements common to all server based networks3
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks
  • Topology
    • Physical layout of computer network

Figure 1-7: Commonly used network topologies

elements common to all server based networks4
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks
  • Protocol
    • Rules network uses to transfer data
  • Data Packets
    • The distinct units of data transmitted from one computer to another on a network
elements common to all server based networks5
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks
  • Addressing
    • Scheme for assigning unique identifying number to every workstation on network
    • The number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network is its address
elements common to all server based networks6
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks
  • Transmission media
    • Means through which data are transmitted and received

Figure 1-8: Examples of network transmission media

how networks are used
How Networks Are Used
  • Services
    • Features provided by a network
      • File and print services
      • Communications services
      • Mail services
      • Internet services
      • Management services
network services
Network Services
  • File services
    • Refers to capability of a server to share data files, applications, and disk storage space
    • Server that provides file services is called a file server
  • Print services
    • Allows printers to be shared by several users on a network
network services1
Network Services
  • Communications services
    • Allow remote users to connect to a network
      • Remote user
        • Person working on a computer in a different geographical location from the LAN’s server
    • Communications server
      • Server that runs communications services
      • Also referred to as access servers and remote access servers
network services2
Network Services
  • Mail services
    • Coordinate storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network
      • Gateway
        • Combination of software and hardware enabling two different kinds of networks to exchange data
  • Internet services
    • Enable networks to communicate with the Internet
network services3
Network Services
  • Management services
    • Centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on the network
    • Numerous services fall under category of network management
important management services
Important Management Services
  • Traffic monitoring and control
    • Traffic
      • Data transmission and processing activity taking place on a computer network at any given time
    • Segment
      • Part of LAN that is logically separated from other parts of LAN and that shares fixed amount of traffic capacity
important management services1
Important Management Services
  • Load balancing
    • Distributing process activity evenly across a network so that no single device is overwhelmed
  • Hardware diagnosis and failure alert
    • Determining when a network component fails and automatically notifying network administrators through e-mail or pager
important management services2
Important Management Services
  • Asset management
    • Collecting and storing data on number and types of software and hardware assets in an organization’s network
  • License tracking
    • Determining how many copies of a single application are currently in use on a network
important management services3
Important Management Services
  • Security auditing
    • Evaluating what security measures are currently in force and notifying network administrator if a security breach occurs
  • Software distribution
    • Automatically transferring data file or program from the server to a client on the network
important management services4
Important Management Services
  • Address management
    • Centrally administering a finite number of network addresses for an entire LAN
  • Backup and restoration of data
    • Backing up
      • Copying critical files to a secure storage area
    • Restoring
      • Retrieving data if original files are lost or deleted
becoming a network professional
Becoming a Network Professional
  • Mastering the technical challenges
  • Developing your “soft skills”
  • Pursuing certification
  • Finding a job in networking
  • Joining professional associations
mastering the technical challenges
Mastering the Technical Challenges
  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server software
  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server hardware
  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client software
  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client hardware
mastering the technical challenges1
Mastering the Technical Challenges
  • Understanding the characteristics of different transmission media
  • Understanding network design
  • Understanding network protocols
  • Understanding how users interact with the network
mastering the technical challenges2
Mastering the Technical Challenges
  • Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals:
    • Network security
    • Internet and intranet design
    • Network management
    • Voice/data integration
    • Remote and mobile computing
mastering the technical challenges3
Mastering the Technical Challenges
  • Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals (cont.):
    • Data integrity and fault tolerance
    • In-depth knowledge of Microsoft networking products
    • In-depth knowledge of NetWare networking products
    • In-depth knowledge of router configuration and management
developing your soft skills
Developing Your “Soft Skills”
  • Skills not easily measured but important to a networking career:
    • Customer relations
    • Oral and written communications
    • Dependability
    • Teamwork
    • Leadership abilities
pursuing certification
Pursuing Certification
  • Certification
    • Process of mastering material pertaining to a particular hardware system, operating system, programming language, or other software program, then proving your mastery by passing a series of exams
  • Computer Technology Association (CompTIA)
    • An association that sets industry-wide standards for computer professionals
pursuing certification1
Pursuing Certification
  • A+
    • Certification established by CompTIA
    • Verifies knowledge about PC operation, repair, and management
  • Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)
    • Certification established by Microsoft
    • Demonstrates in-depth knowledge about Microsoft’s products
pursuing certification2
Pursuing Certification
  • Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE)
    • Certification established by Novell
    • Demonstrates in-depth understanding of Novell’s networking software
  • Network+ (Net+)
    • Certification established by CompTIA
    • Verifies broad, vendor-independent networking technology skills
pursuing certification3
Pursuing Certification
  • Benefits of becoming certified include:
    • Better salary
    • Greater opportunities
    • Professional respect
    • Access to better support
finding a job in networking
Finding a Job in Networking
  • Search the Web
  • Read the paper
  • Visit a career center
  • Network
  • Attend career fairs
finding a job in networking1
Finding a Job in Networking

Table 1-1: Web sites with job databases

joining professional associations
Joining Professional Associations
  • Benefits can include:
    • Connecting with people who have similar interests
    • Providing new opportunities for learning
    • Allowing access to specialized information
    • Giving you tangible assets such as free goods
joining professional associations1
Joining Professional Associations

Table 1-2: Web sites of networking organizations

chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • A Network is a group of computers or other devices connected by some type of transmission media
  • Networks may be small or large, connecting computers in one office or across the world
  • All networks offer advantages relative to the use of standalone computers
  • Simplest form of a network still used today connects a handful of computers through one cable and uses peer-to-peer communication
chapter summary1
Chapter Summary
  • A LAN is a network of computers and other devices confined to a relatively small space
  • A WAN is a network connecting two or more geographically distinct LANs
  • All server-based networks share some common elements
  • The physical layout of a computer network is called a topology
  • Network protocols are rules the network uses to transfer data
chapter summary2
Chapter Summary
  • File and print services provide foundation for networking
  • Communications services allow remote users to connect to the network
  • Mail services allow networks users to exchange and store e-mail
  • Internet services enable organizations to connect to the Internet
  • Network management services centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on network
chapter summary3
Chapter Summary
  • Networking professionals are in demand
  • Pursuing certification can benefit you in many ways
  • Hone your soft skills
  • Numerous resources are available in searching for networking positions
  • Joining associations can benefit your professional growth
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