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Chapter One. An Introduction to Networking. Objectives. List advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing Identify elements of a network Describe several specific uses of a network. Objectives. Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks

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Chapter one

Chapter One

An Introduction

to Networking


Objectives
Objectives

  • List advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing

  • Identify elements of a network

  • Describe several specific uses of a network


Objectives1
Objectives

  • Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks

  • Identify some of the certifications available to networking professionals

  • Identify kinds of non-technical, or “soft,” skills to help in succeeding as a networking professional


Networks and standalone computers
Networks and Standalone Computers

  • Network

    • Group of computers and other devices connected by some type of transmission media

    • Networks enable users to share devices and data, collectively called a network’s resources

  • Standalone computer

    • Uses programs and data only from its local disks and is not connected to a network


Sneakernet
Sneakernet

  • Method of sharing data by copying it to a disk and carrying the disk from computer to computer

Figure 1-1: Data sharing before the advent of networks


Local and remote computers
Local and Remote Computers

  • Local computer

    • Computer on which user is working

  • Remote computer

    • Computer that user controls or works on via network connection


Peer to peer network
Peer-to-Peer Network

  • Computers communicate on single segment of cable and share each other’s data and devices

  • Simple example of a local area network (LAN)

Figure 1-2: Simple peer-to-peer network


Local area network lan
Local Area Network (LAN)

  • Network of computers and other devices confined to relatively small space

  • LANs involving many computers are usually server-based

    • On a server-based network, special computers (known as servers) process data for and facilitate communication between other computers on the network (known as clients)


Networking basics
Networking Basics

  • Workstation

    • Computer that typically runs a desktop operating system and connects to a network

  • Client/server architecture

    • Networking model in which clients use central server to share applications, devices, and data


Networking basics1
Networking Basics

  • Client/server network

    • Network based on client/server architecture

  • Network operating system

    • Special software designed to manage data and other resources on a server for a number of clients


Networking basics2
Networking Basics

Figure 1-3: LAN with a file server


Networking basics3
Networking Basics

Figure 1-4: An example of a complex network


Advantages of server based over peer to peer networks
Advantages of Server-Based over Peer-to-Peer Networks

  • User login accounts and passwords can be assigned in one place

  • Access to multiple shared resources can be centrally granted

  • Servers are optimized to handle heavy processing loads and dedicated to handling requests from clients

  • Servers can connect more than a handful of computers


Mans and wans
MANs and WANs

  • Metropolitan area network (MAN)

    • Network connecting clients and servers in multiple buildings within limited geographic area

  • Wide area network (WAN)

    • Network that spans large distance and connects two or more LANs

    • The Internet is an example of a very intricate and extensive WAN that spans the globe


WAN

Figure 1-5: A simple WAN


Elements common to all server based networks
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Client

    • In addition to referring to a computer on the network, may also refers to human user of client workstation

  • Server

  • Workstation

  • Network interface card (NIC)

    • Enables workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers


Elements common to all server based networks1
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

Figure 1-6: A network interface card (NIC)


Elements common to all server based networks2
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Network operating system (NOS)

  • Host

    • Server that manages shared resources

  • Node

    • Client, server, or other device that can communicate over a network and that is identified by a unique identifying number, known as its network address


Elements common to all server based networks3
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Topology

    • Physical layout of computer network

Figure 1-7: Commonly used network topologies


Elements common to all server based networks4
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Protocol

    • Rules network uses to transfer data

  • Data Packets

    • The distinct units of data transmitted from one computer to another on a network


Elements common to all server based networks5
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Addressing

    • Scheme for assigning unique identifying number to every workstation on network

    • The number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network is its address


Elements common to all server based networks6
Elements Common to AllServer-Based Networks

  • Transmission media

    • Means through which data are transmitted and received

Figure 1-8: Examples of network transmission media


How networks are used
How Networks Are Used

  • Services

    • Features provided by a network

      • File and print services

      • Communications services

      • Mail services

      • Internet services

      • Management services


Network services
Network Services

  • File services

    • Refers to capability of a server to share data files, applications, and disk storage space

    • Server that provides file services is called a file server

  • Print services

    • Allows printers to be shared by several users on a network


Network services1
Network Services

  • Communications services

    • Allow remote users to connect to a network

      • Remote user

        • Person working on a computer in a different geographical location from the LAN’s server

    • Communications server

      • Server that runs communications services

      • Also referred to as access servers and remote access servers


Network services2
Network Services

  • Mail services

    • Coordinate storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network

      • Gateway

        • Combination of software and hardware enabling two different kinds of networks to exchange data

  • Internet services

    • Enable networks to communicate with the Internet


Network services3
Network Services

  • Management services

    • Centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on the network

    • Numerous services fall under category of network management


Important management services
Important Management Services

  • Traffic monitoring and control

    • Traffic

      • Data transmission and processing activity taking place on a computer network at any given time

    • Segment

      • Part of LAN that is logically separated from other parts of LAN and that shares fixed amount of traffic capacity


Important management services1
Important Management Services

  • Load balancing

    • Distributing process activity evenly across a network so that no single device is overwhelmed

  • Hardware diagnosis and failure alert

    • Determining when a network component fails and automatically notifying network administrators through e-mail or pager


Important management services2
Important Management Services

  • Asset management

    • Collecting and storing data on number and types of software and hardware assets in an organization’s network

  • License tracking

    • Determining how many copies of a single application are currently in use on a network


Important management services3
Important Management Services

  • Security auditing

    • Evaluating what security measures are currently in force and notifying network administrator if a security breach occurs

  • Software distribution

    • Automatically transferring data file or program from the server to a client on the network


Important management services4
Important Management Services

  • Address management

    • Centrally administering a finite number of network addresses for an entire LAN

  • Backup and restoration of data

    • Backing up

      • Copying critical files to a secure storage area

    • Restoring

      • Retrieving data if original files are lost or deleted


Becoming a network professional
Becoming a Network Professional

  • Mastering the technical challenges

  • Developing your “soft skills”

  • Pursuing certification

  • Finding a job in networking

  • Joining professional associations


Mastering the technical challenges
Mastering the Technical Challenges

  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server software

  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server hardware

  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client software

  • Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client hardware


Mastering the technical challenges1
Mastering the Technical Challenges

  • Understanding the characteristics of different transmission media

  • Understanding network design

  • Understanding network protocols

  • Understanding how users interact with the network


Mastering the technical challenges2
Mastering the Technical Challenges

  • Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals:

    • Network security

    • Internet and intranet design

    • Network management

    • Voice/data integration

    • Remote and mobile computing


Mastering the technical challenges3
Mastering the Technical Challenges

  • Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals (cont.):

    • Data integrity and fault tolerance

    • In-depth knowledge of Microsoft networking products

    • In-depth knowledge of NetWare networking products

    • In-depth knowledge of router configuration and management


Developing your soft skills
Developing Your “Soft Skills”

  • Skills not easily measured but important to a networking career:

    • Customer relations

    • Oral and written communications

    • Dependability

    • Teamwork

    • Leadership abilities


Pursuing certification
Pursuing Certification

  • Certification

    • Process of mastering material pertaining to a particular hardware system, operating system, programming language, or other software program, then proving your mastery by passing a series of exams

  • Computer Technology Association (CompTIA)

    • An association that sets industry-wide standards for computer professionals


Pursuing certification1
Pursuing Certification

  • A+

    • Certification established by CompTIA

    • Verifies knowledge about PC operation, repair, and management

  • Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)

    • Certification established by Microsoft

    • Demonstrates in-depth knowledge about Microsoft’s products


Pursuing certification2
Pursuing Certification

  • Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE)

    • Certification established by Novell

    • Demonstrates in-depth understanding of Novell’s networking software

  • Network+ (Net+)

    • Certification established by CompTIA

    • Verifies broad, vendor-independent networking technology skills


Pursuing certification3
Pursuing Certification

  • Benefits of becoming certified include:

    • Better salary

    • Greater opportunities

    • Professional respect

    • Access to better support


Finding a job in networking
Finding a Job in Networking

  • Search the Web

  • Read the paper

  • Visit a career center

  • Network

  • Attend career fairs


Finding a job in networking1
Finding a Job in Networking

Table 1-1: Web sites with job databases


Joining professional associations
Joining Professional Associations

  • Benefits can include:

    • Connecting with people who have similar interests

    • Providing new opportunities for learning

    • Allowing access to specialized information

    • Giving you tangible assets such as free goods


Joining professional associations1
Joining Professional Associations

Table 1-2: Web sites of networking organizations


Chapter summary
Chapter Summary

  • A Network is a group of computers or other devices connected by some type of transmission media

  • Networks may be small or large, connecting computers in one office or across the world

  • All networks offer advantages relative to the use of standalone computers

  • Simplest form of a network still used today connects a handful of computers through one cable and uses peer-to-peer communication


Chapter summary1
Chapter Summary

  • A LAN is a network of computers and other devices confined to a relatively small space

  • A WAN is a network connecting two or more geographically distinct LANs

  • All server-based networks share some common elements

  • The physical layout of a computer network is called a topology

  • Network protocols are rules the network uses to transfer data


Chapter summary2
Chapter Summary

  • File and print services provide foundation for networking

  • Communications services allow remote users to connect to the network

  • Mail services allow networks users to exchange and store e-mail

  • Internet services enable organizations to connect to the Internet

  • Network management services centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on network


Chapter summary3
Chapter Summary

  • Networking professionals are in demand

  • Pursuing certification can benefit you in many ways

  • Hone your soft skills

  • Numerous resources are available in searching for networking positions

  • Joining associations can benefit your professional growth


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