Chemistry
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 30

Chemistry PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 68 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chemistry. What is Matter. Anything that has mass and volume. Atoms. Atom: the basic unit of matter. Subatomic particles: neutrons, electrons, and protons. Subatomic Particles. Protons (+) and Neutrons Nucleus Same mass Electrons (-) In the electron cloud in constant motion

Download Presentation

Chemistry

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chemistry

Chemistry


What is matter

What is Matter

Anything that has mass and volume


Atoms

Atoms

  • Atom: the basic unit of matter.

  • Subatomic particles: neutrons, electrons, and protons.


Subatomic particles

Subatomic Particles

  • Protons (+) and Neutrons

    • Nucleus

    • Same mass

  • Electrons (-)

    • In the electron cloud in constant motion

    • Less mass

Electron –

Proton +

Neutron


Elements

Elements

  • Element: pure substance that consists of only one type of atom.

  • 1 or 2 letter symbol

  • Atomic Number: # of protons

  • Atomic Mass: # of protons + neutron.

6

C

12.011


Isotopes

Isotopes

  • atom with a different number of neutron

  • ID by atomic mass

  • same chemical properties

  • unstable nucleuses  give off radiation

  • scientific testing, cancer therapy, and to date objects


Compounds

Compounds

  • Compound: the combination of two or more elements,; water, glucose, and methane

  • Atoms are held together by chemical bonds.

  • Smallest unit of a compound is a molecule.

H2OC6H12O6 CH4


Types of chemical bonds

Types of Chemical Bonds

  • Ionic Bonds

  • Covalent Bonds


Ionic bond

Ionic Bond

  • The transfer of an electron from one atom to another atom.

  • Ions: positively and negatively charged atom.

  • Positively charged atoms lose electrons.

  • Negatively charged atoms gain electrons.

    F- K+S2-


Ionic bond1

Ionic Bond


Covalent bonds

Covalent Bonds

  • The linkage of two atoms by the sharing of two electrons.

  • Permits each atom to have a stable closed-shell electron configuration.

  • Molecule: combination of two or more atoms


Covalent bond

Covalent Bond


Formulas

Formulas

  • Chemical Formula: represents the number and types of atoms in a molecule

    • H2O, CaO, H2SO4

  • Structural Formula: represent how atoms are joined and arranged in various models

    • Single line: single bond

    • Double line: double bond


Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

  • Synthesis: 2 or more atoms, the reactants react to form a product

    • A + B  AB

  • Decomposition: reactant molecule breaks into simple molecule or atoms

    • AB  A + B

  • Exchange Reaction (Replacement): reactants exchange partners

    • AB + CD  AD + CB


Reactions

Reactions

  • Reversible Reaction: products of reaction can change back into the reactants

    • Double Arrow: A + B ↔ AB

  • Catalyst: a molecule or atom that increases reaction rate without being changed by the reaction


Acids and bases

Acids and Bases

  • Electrolyte: compounds that release ions in water and conduct electricity

    • NaCl  Na+ + Cl-

  • Acids: release H+

    • HCl  H + + Cl-

  • Bases: release OH-

    • NaOH  Na+ + OH-


Chemistry

pH

  • A logarithmic scale that measures the concentration of H3O+

    • Neutral: 7

    • Acidic: < 7

    • Basic or Alkaline: > 7


Chemical constituents of cells

Chemical Constituents of Cells


Organic vs inorganic

Organic vs. Inorganic

  • Organic: compounds containing C and H

    • Nonelectrolytes: don’t dissolve in water as ions

      • Don’t conduct electricity

  • Inorganic: compounds that don’t contain C

    • Electrolytes: dissolve in water as ions

      • conduct electricity


Inorganic substances

Inorganic Substances

  • Water: universal solvent

  • Oxygen: used to release energy from sugar

  • Carbon Dioxide: cellular metabolism byproduct

  • Salts: abundant in tissues and fluids

    • Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, PO43+

    • Transport, muscle contraction, and nerve impulses


Organic substances

Organic Substances

  • Carbohydrates: energy source

    • C, H, O

    • (CH2O)n

    • Stored as energy reserves

    • Building materials

    • Monomer: monosaccaride

      • glucose, fructose

    • Polymer: disaccarides or polysaccarides

      • Glycogen, sucrose


Lipids

Lipids

  • C, H, O

    • C57H110O6

    • Fatty Acids and Glycerol

  • Fats, Oils, Waxes, and Steroids

  • Insoluble in water

  • Fats: energy storage


Triglyceride

Triglyceride


Lipids1

Lipids

  • Saturated: maximum no. of H

    • No double bonds

  • Unstaturated: less than the maximum no. of H

    • Double bonds


Proteins

Proteins

  • C, H, O, N

  • Structural material, energy sources, and enzymes

    • Enzymes: catalysts

  • Protein: made up of amino acids

    • 20 different amino acids in nature

    • Function depends on order of amino acids and how it is folded


Protein

Protein


Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

  • C, H, O, N, P

  • Compose DNA and RNA

    • Genetic material

  • Monomer: nucleic acid

    • 5-sugar, phosphate group, nucleotide


Chemistry

DNA


  • Login