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Chemistry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chemistry. What is Matter. Anything that has mass and volume. Atoms. Atom: the basic unit of matter. Subatomic particles: neutrons, electrons, and protons. Subatomic Particles. Protons (+) and Neutrons Nucleus Same mass Electrons (-) In the electron cloud in constant motion

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what is matter
What is Matter

Anything that has mass and volume

atoms
Atoms
  • Atom: the basic unit of matter.
  • Subatomic particles: neutrons, electrons, and protons.
subatomic particles
Subatomic Particles
  • Protons (+) and Neutrons
    • Nucleus
    • Same mass
  • Electrons (-)
    • In the electron cloud in constant motion
    • Less mass

Electron –

Proton +

Neutron

elements
Elements
  • Element: pure substance that consists of only one type of atom.
  • 1 or 2 letter symbol
  • Atomic Number: # of protons
  • Atomic Mass: # of protons + neutron.

6

C

12.011

isotopes
Isotopes
  • atom with a different number of neutron
  • ID by atomic mass
  • same chemical properties
  • unstable nucleuses  give off radiation
  • scientific testing, cancer therapy, and to date objects
compounds
Compounds
  • Compound: the combination of two or more elements,; water, glucose, and methane
  • Atoms are held together by chemical bonds.
  • Smallest unit of a compound is a molecule.

H2OC6H12O6 CH4

types of chemical bonds
Types of Chemical Bonds
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds
ionic bond
Ionic Bond
  • The transfer of an electron from one atom to another atom.
  • Ions: positively and negatively charged atom.
  • Positively charged atoms lose electrons.
  • Negatively charged atoms gain electrons.

F- K+ S2-

covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • The linkage of two atoms by the sharing of two electrons.
  • Permits each atom to have a stable closed-shell electron configuration.
  • Molecule: combination of two or more atoms
formulas
Formulas
  • Chemical Formula: represents the number and types of atoms in a molecule
    • H2O, CaO, H2SO4
  • Structural Formula: represent how atoms are joined and arranged in various models
    • Single line: single bond
    • Double line: double bond
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Synthesis: 2 or more atoms, the reactants react to form a product
    • A + B  AB
  • Decomposition: reactant molecule breaks into simple molecule or atoms
    • AB  A + B
  • Exchange Reaction (Replacement): reactants exchange partners
    • AB + CD  AD + CB
reactions
Reactions
  • Reversible Reaction: products of reaction can change back into the reactants
    • Double Arrow: A + B ↔ AB
  • Catalyst: a molecule or atom that increases reaction rate without being changed by the reaction
acids and bases
Acids and Bases
  • Electrolyte: compounds that release ions in water and conduct electricity
    • NaCl  Na+ + Cl-
  • Acids: release H+
    • HCl  H + + Cl-
  • Bases: release OH-
    • NaOH  Na+ + OH-
slide18
pH
  • A logarithmic scale that measures the concentration of H3O+
    • Neutral: 7
    • Acidic: < 7
    • Basic or Alkaline: > 7
organic vs inorganic
Organic vs. Inorganic
  • Organic: compounds containing C and H
    • Nonelectrolytes: don’t dissolve in water as ions
      • Don’t conduct electricity
  • Inorganic: compounds that don’t contain C
    • Electrolytes: dissolve in water as ions
      • conduct electricity
inorganic substances
Inorganic Substances
  • Water: universal solvent
  • Oxygen: used to release energy from sugar
  • Carbon Dioxide: cellular metabolism byproduct
  • Salts: abundant in tissues and fluids
    • Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, PO43+
    • Transport, muscle contraction, and nerve impulses
organic substances
Organic Substances
  • Carbohydrates: energy source
    • C, H, O
    • (CH2O)n
    • Stored as energy reserves
    • Building materials
    • Monomer: monosaccaride
      • glucose, fructose
    • Polymer: disaccarides or polysaccarides
      • Glycogen, sucrose
lipids
Lipids
  • C, H, O
    • C57H110O6
    • Fatty Acids and Glycerol
  • Fats, Oils, Waxes, and Steroids
  • Insoluble in water
  • Fats: energy storage
lipids1
Lipids
  • Saturated: maximum no. of H
    • No double bonds
  • Unstaturated: less than the maximum no. of H
    • Double bonds
proteins
Proteins
  • C, H, O, N
  • Structural material, energy sources, and enzymes
    • Enzymes: catalysts
  • Protein: made up of amino acids
    • 20 different amino acids in nature
    • Function depends on order of amino acids and how it is folded
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • C, H, O, N, P
  • Compose DNA and RNA
    • Genetic material
  • Monomer: nucleic acid
    • 5-sugar, phosphate group, nucleotide
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