SMST216-08B Lecture 2 (Week 30). Part I: The History of Television A Short History of Television in New Zealand Geoff Lealand. There are two major strands of television history.
Part I: The History of Television
A Short History of Television in New Zealand
Note:there are two general histories of television in NZ: Robert Boyd-Bell (1985), New Zealand Television: The First 25 Years, andPatrick Day (2000), Voice & Vision: A History of Broadcasting in New Zealand. See also Lealand & Martin (2001) Chapter 1
Three hundred is, in fact, a conservative figure since it took nearly a century of research before Milton Berle could show up in your living room in drag
TV historian Jeff Kisseloff
(Q. Who is Milton Berle?)
Broadcast History Timeline
History of Television Timeline
History of Television in New Zealand
• Minimal regulation/government control (Federal Communications Commission)
• primary content of television was domestically-based entertainment
•primary purpose and funding of television was commerce (delivering audiences to advertisers)
[video: The People’s Century; Picture Power]
The BBC is still regarded as a public service broadcaster, funded by a general broadcasting fee (120 pounds annually), to inform, educate and entertain. Nevertheless, it makes substantial profits from programmes it exports (eg $NZ300+ million from Teletubbies), and formats it owns and exports (eg Dancing With the Stars)
• grew out of state-owned radio; Television New Zealand remains state-owned television (currently a Crown-owned company)
• from the beginning, there was a mix of public service broadcasting (fee) and commercial income (TVCs)
[video: 40 years of ONE)
• introduction of privately-owned channels (TV3) in 1988 and pay TV (Sky) in 1990
Television in New Zealand, in 2008, remains a mix of public service objectives (a prime responsibility of Television New Zealand), and commercial interests (overseas-owned channels + pay TV ). There are structures and processes unique to television in this country.
Set-top box, commercial-free digital service (Freeview) began in 2007, screening free-to-air channels, including TVNZ6 and TVNZ7
• Operates TV3 (FTA channel, with younger demographic) + C4 (music video + programming strands). 19% FTA audience share (2006)
[CanWest also owns a large share of the NZ radio market (RadioWorks, Radio Pacific, More FM)
Previously owned and operated by Prime Networks Australia; purchased by Sky Network Television in 2005. Financed through advertising revenue. Up to 5% FTA audience share.
Sky uses Prime for FTA replays of the significant sporting fixtures it has exclusive rights to (rugby)
State-funded national channel,with a brief to preserve and promote te reo Maori . Launched June 2004, and attracts between 50-70% non-Maori viewers, broadcasting up to 8 hours daily.
Programming is 90% locally produced
Second channel Te reo launched in 2008
Pay TV service, providing 80+ channels of terrestrial + satellite digital service + radio channels.. 78% owned by Independent News Ltd (INL)* + 8% Commercial Bank of Australia. In 46% of NZ h/hs; subscribers=720,919, Dec 2007 ), After years on continuous losses, Sky made $35m profit in 2004. Currently 5% of income comes from advertising. 23% of the total NZ television audience (2006); 19% share of 20-54 year olds (April 2008) Introduced PVR (personal video recorders) as MySky in 2006; currently adding HDTV
* 44% owned by Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation
Broadcasting slot required to receive NZOA funding.
The major avenues for funding television are:
•advertising (buying airtime, sponsorship, naming rights)
•fees or taxes (eg the former Public Broadcasting Fee)
•direct government funding eg MTS and NZOA in NZ; ABC in Australia)
•funding mixes (eg TVNZ)
•Pay TV--pay service, channel subscriptions
In effect channels are settling into three types:
The Sky TV subscription services collectively of course is a major competitor to the Type 1 channels in particular, but its individual channels mostly fall into Types 2 and 3, with the possible exception of sports.
From:New Zealand On Air Statement of Intent 2008-11, Wellington: 2008
*The Personal Video Recorder (PVR) aka Digital Personal Video Recorder (DVR) or MySky
The PVR makes timeshifting much easier, can ‘pause’ live TV, provide instant replay, and the ability to skip advertising .
*Analogue TV switch-off (NZ 2012?; USA 2009; Finland 2007),complete shift to digital TV
*New forms of delivery eg TV on mobiles, webTV