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The Bonds of Empire. US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010. Focus Questions. How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations between England and its North American colonies?

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The bonds of empire l.jpg

The Bonds of Empire

US History

East High School

Mr. Peterson

Fall 2010


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Focus Questions

  • How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations between England and its North American colonies?

  • What factors contributed most significantly to the growth and prosperity of the British mainland colonies?

  • What factors explain the relative strengths of the British, French, and Spanish empires in North America?

  • What were the most significant results of the Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the British colonies?



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Royal Centralization, 1660-1688

  • Kings centralized power

    • Little use for representative government

    • Direct political control over colonies

  • Dominion of New England

    • Consolidated NE colonies into one unit

    • Tensions arise between colonies and Britain

      • Massachusetts hates Dominion


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The Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689

  • Protestants Mary (James’ daughter) and husband William of Orange invade Britain

    • Catholic James overthrown, flees to France

    • English Bill of Rights-1689

      • “limited monarchy”

  • Dominion abolished

    • King William III tries to control New England

    • Tolerance of other Protestants required

    • Demise of the New England Way


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A Generation of War, 1689-1713

  • King William’s War

    • Extension of European War to North America

    • Invasion of New France

  • Queen Anne’s War

    • England and France (War of the Spanish Succession)

    • Spanish invade Carolina

    • Acadia captured by British, renamed Nova Scotia



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Mercantilist Empires in America

  • Mercantilism

    • Nation’s power measured in wealth, esp. gold

    • Maximize exports (exchange for gold)

    • Not rely on other nations

    • Colonies would provide raw materials

    • Home country manufactures goods, colonist markets

    • War , if necessary, to gain raw materials, expand markets, block rivals

  • Navigation Acts

    • Certain commodities must go through England

    • Molasses Act-taxed foreign molasses

    • Protective tariffs on foreign goods

    • Encouraged colonies to diversify economies


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Population Growth and Diversity

  • England held demographic edge

    • 250,000 in English colonies by 1700

      • 15,000 French and 4,500 Spanish

    • 1,170,000 in English colonies by 1750

      • 60,000 French and 19,000 Spanish

  • English had better farmland, weather, healthier economies

  • English accepted most Protestant groups, even non-English

    • Scots-Irish and Germans

    • Anti-Catholic sentiment remained high

    • Small Jewish communities developed



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Rural White Men and Women

  • Farmers typically had just enough land for themselves

    • Adult children would rent other land

    • Farms were typically mortgaged

    • Not paid off until reaching late fifties

  • Wives and daughters did household and close-in work on farm

    • Married women, with few exceptions, did not own property

    • Widows owned 8-10% of all property



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Colonial Farmers and the Environment

  • Rapid expansion east of Appalachians

  • Trees had to be cleared

    • Game drove away

  • Didn’t rotate crops

    • Used manure, except with tobacco



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The Urban Paradox

  • Cities key to prosperity

    • Only 4% of population by 1740

    • Few significant cities: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston

  • Poverty rose in cities

    • Women especially affected

    • Changing labor patterns

      • Move from apprentices and journeymen tradesmen to shorter term labor

  • Wealth concentrated in small number of families




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Slavery

  • Owners spent just enough to keep slaves alive

    • 40% of what was spent to maintain indentured servants

    • Some food provided, forage or raise other food

  • Creoles, American-born slaves

    • Some slaves learned trades or worked in houses

  • Task system allowed some slaves time to grow own crops and earn some money

  • Gang system-work from dawn to dusk, sometimes longer

  • Slaves could be rented out

  • Black majority in South Carolina

    • Restrictions on slaves


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African Origins ofSlaves Shipped by British 1692–1807





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Stono Rebellion (1739)

  • Slave uprising in SC

  • Suppressed brutally

  • Strict slave codes enacted


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The Rise of Colonial Elites

  • Small number became very wealthy

    • Greater gentry

      • 2% of population

      • Owned 15% of all property

    • Lesser Gentry

      • Next 8% of population

      • Owned 25% of property

  • Imitated refinements of upper class in Europe

  • Some would go on grand tour to Europe




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Competing for a Continent, 1713-1750

  • French seek to strengthen hold in Mississippi Valley

    • New Orleans established in 1718

    • Difficult life for all in Louisiana

  • France tries to counter British in Ohio Valley

    • French post of Detroit established

    • English would offer better prices for goods

  • French, in general, treated Indians better, but could be brutal

  • French traders went into Rocky Mountains

    • Bought buffalo hides and Indian slaves

  • Great Plains and Great Basin Indians adopt horse and gun




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Native Americans and British Expansion

  • Depopulation and dislocation of natives

  • Conflict came early to Carolina

    • Tuscarora War (1711-1713)

    • Yamasee War (1715-1716)

    • Covenant Chain

      • Iroquois help English conquer other Indians

      • Iroquois become most powerful Indian group


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British Expansion in the South: Georgia

  • Gen. James Oglethorpe

  • Unique experiment

  • Military and philanthropic motives

    • Counter Spanish presence in Florida

    • Limited land holding

    • Excluded Africans initially

    • Excluded Catholics

    • Prohibited rum

    • Strictly regulated trade with natives

  • Poor tradesmen and artisans

    • England and Scotland

  • Religious refugees

    • Germany and Switzerland

  • Lowest percentage of English



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Congregation Mickve Israel

Founded 1733

Statue of James Oglethorpe

Savannah, Georgia


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Spain’s Borderlands

  • Spain controlled much of SE and SW by 1750

  • Spread thin, sparsely populated

  • Depended on support of Natives Americans




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The Return of War, 1739-1748

  • King George’s War (1740-1748)

    • War between Britain and Spain

    • War of the Austrian Succession in Europe

    • New Englanders attack New France



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Colonial Politics

  • Colonial assemblies a major force

    • Lower house elected by people

    • Upper house appointed by governor

  • Trial of Peter Zenger

    • Encouraged broad political participation and discussion



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The Enlightenment

  • Well educated population

  • Enlightenment combined human reason with skepticism

    • Benjamin Franklin

      • Embodied Enlightenment in America

      • Science and public benefit



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The Great Awakening

  • Surge of Protestant revivalism, beginning in 1739

    • Jonathan Edwards

      • Congregationalist minister

      • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”

    • George Whitefield

      • Revival tour

  • Unprecedented split in Protestantism

    • New Lights vs. Old Lights

    • New colleges formed

    • Added to prominence of women in religion





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The Bonds of Empire

US History

East High School

Mr. Peterson

Fall 2010


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