Strategic leadership
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Strategic Leadership. Chapter 13. Chapter 3. External. Environment. Strat. Intent. The Strategic Management Process. Inputs. Strategic. Strat. Mission. Chapter 4. Internal. Environment. Strategy Formulation. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Chapter 5.

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Strategic Leadership

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Strategic leadership

Strategic Leadership

Chapter 13

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic leadership

Chapter 3

External

Environment

Strat. Intent

The Strategic Management Process

Inputs

Strategic

Strat. Mission

Chapter 4

Internal

Environment

Strategy Formulation

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 5

Actions

Bus. - Level

Competitive

Bus. - Level

Corp. - Level

Dynamics

Strategy

Strategy

Strategy

Chapter 9

Chapter 8

Chapter 10

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Strategic

International

Cooperative

Entrepreneurship

& Innovation

Acquisitions &

Strategic

Strategy

Strategies

Restructuring

Leadership

Strategic

Outcomes

Chapter 13

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Strategic

Strategic Competitiveness

Strategic Competitiveness

Above Average Returns

Leadership

TheStrategic.Management.Process

Strategy Implementation

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Corporate

Structure

Governance

& Control

Feedback

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic leadership1

Strategic Leadership

Knowledge Objectives

  • Define strategic leadership & describe top-level managers’ importance as a resource.

  • Differentiate between the concepts of strategic, visionary, and managerial leadership.

  • Define top management teams & explain their efforts on firm performance & their ability to innovate & make appropriate strategic changes.

  • Discuss the value of strategic leadership in determining the firm’s strategic direction.

  • Explain strategic leaders’ role in exploiting & maintaining core competencies.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic leadership2

Strategic Leadership

Knowledge Objectives (continued)

6. Describe the importance of strategic leaders in developing human capital.

7. Define organizational culture & explain what must be done to sustain an effective culture.

8. Explain what strategic leaders can do to establish & emphasize ethical practice.

9. Discuss the importance & use of organizational controls.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic leadership presumes

Strategic Leadership Presumes

  • An ability to influence those with whom one works.

  • The leader understands the emergent strategy process.

  • A shared vision of what the organization is to be.

  • Agreement among senior manger & board members of opportunities and threats.

  • Visionary leadership that entails many characteristics such as a willingness to take risks.

  • Managerial leadership that includes an intended rational way of looking at the world.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic leadership and the strategic management process

Shapes the formation of

and

Strategic Intent

Strategic Mission

Influences

Successful Strategic Actions

Formulation of Strategies

ImplementationofStrategies

Yields

Strategic Competitiveness Above Average Returns

Strategic Leadership and the Strategic Management Process

Effective Strategic Leadership

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Managerial leaders

Managerial Leaders

  • Adopt impersonal, passive attitudes towards goals.

  • View work as enabling process that involves some combination of ideas & people interacting to establish strategies & make decisions.

  • Relate to other people according to their role in the decision making process.

  • Maintain a low level of emotional involvement in these relationships.

  • Influence only the actions & decisions of those with whom they work.

  • Want stability & order and strive to preserve the existing order.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Visionary leadership

Visionary Leadership

  • Shape ideas as opposed to reacting to them.

  • Influence changes in the way people think about what is possible, desirable and necessary.

  • Are concerned with ideas & relate to people in intuitive & empathetic ways.

  • Are more likely to make decisions that are based on values.

  • Are willing to invest in human capital & creating & maintaining as effective culture to ensure long term viability.

  • Is future-oriented & concerned with risk taking.

  • Want creativity, innovation and chaos. * Strive to change the existing order.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic leadership3

Strategic Leadership

  • A synergistic combination of managerial & visionary leadership.

  • Manages the paradox created by the use of managerial & visionary models.

  • Establishes the context through which stakeholders are able to perform at peak efficiency.

  • Willing to make candid, courageous & yet pragmatic decisions.

  • Solicits corrective feedback from their peers, superiors and employees about the value of their difficult decisions.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


M anagerial l eaders s trategic l eaders v isionary l eaders

Managerial Leaders StrategicLeaders, VisionaryLeaders

Want stability & to preserve the existing order

Want stability & to preserve the existing order

Are future-oriented concerned with risk-taking

Are future-oriented concerned with risk-taking

Are comfortable handling Short-term day-to-day activities

Are comfortable handling Short-term day-to-day activities

Are not dependent on the organisation for their sense of who they are

Are not dependent on the organisation for their sense of who they are

Guide without a strategic vision. Constrained by values & by using explicit knowledge

Guide without a strategic vision. Constrained by values & by using explicit knowledge

Control by social- ization & sharing common norms, values & beliefs

Control by social- ization & sharing common norms, values & beliefs

Manage the paradox created by use of managerial & visionary leadership models

Want stability & to preserve the existing order

Are future-oriented concerned with risk-taking

Define boundaries by use

of metaphors, analogies & models to allow for a mixof contradictory concepts

Are comfortable handling Short-term day-to-day activities

Are not dependent on the organisation for their sense of who they are

Guide without a strategic vision. Constrained by values & by using explicit knowledge

Guideknowledgecreationby encouraging contradictory capabilities (e.g. individual, group, and organizational tacit & explicit knowledge)

Control by social- ization & sharing common norms, values & beliefs

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Factors affecting managerial decisions

Factors Affecting Managerial Decisions

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Top management teams

Top Management Teams

Top management teams are comprised of the key managers who are responsible for formulating and implementing the organization’s strategies.

A heterogeneous top management team with varied expertise and knowledge can draw on multiple perspectives when evaluating alternative strategies and building consensus.

A top management team must also be able to function effectively as a team in order to implement strategies.

A heterogeneous team makes this more difficult.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic leadership4

Strategic Leadership

  • Chief executive officers can gain so much power that they are virtually independent of oversight by the board of directors.

  • This is especially true when the CEO is also chairman of the board of directors.

  • CEOs of long tenure can also wield substantial power.

  • The most effective forms of governance share power and influence among the CEO and board of directors.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Ceo board chair duality

Has been blamed for poor performance & slow response to change.

Occurs most commonly on the largest firms.

CEO / Board Chair Duality

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Exercise of effective strategic leadership

Exercise of Effective Strategic Leadership

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Effective strategic leadership

Effective Strategic Leadership

Determines Strategic Direction

Determines Strategic Direction

Developing a long-term vision of the firm’s Strategic Intent

Exploits & Maintains Core Competencies

Exploits & Maintains Core Competencies

Leaders must ensure that the firm’s core competencies are emphasized in strategic implementation efforts

Develops Human Capital

Develops Human Capital

No strategy can be effective unless the firm is able to develop & retain good staff to carry it out

Sustains an Effective Organizational Culture

Sustains an Effective Organizational Culture

Leaders play a critical role in shaping and reinforcing the firm’s culture

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Effective strategic leadership1

Effective Strategic Leadership

Emphasizing Ethical Practices

Emphasizaing Ethical Practices

Encourage & enable people at all organization levels to act ethically when doing what is necessary to implement the firms strategies.

Establishing Balanced Organizational controls

Establishing Balanced Organizational controls

To create controls which are balanced between financial and strategic measurements.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Determining strategic direction

Determining Strategic Direction

  • Strategic direction means the development of a long-term vision of a firm’s strategic intent.

  • A charismatic leader can help achieve strategic intent.

  • It is important not to lose sight of the strengths of the organization when making changes required by a new strategic direction.

  • Executives must structure the firm effectively to help achieve the vision.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Determining strategic actions

Determining Strategic Actions

Developing a long term vision of the firm’s strategic intent

The ideal long term vision has two parts:

  • Core ideology

  • An envisioned future.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Exploiting and maintaining core competencies

Exploiting and Maintaining Core Competencies

  • In many large firms, and certainly in related-diversified ones, core competencies are exploited effectively when they are developed and applied across different organizational units.

  • Core competencies cannot be developed or exploited effectively without developing the capabilities of human capital.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Sustaining an effective organizational culture

Sustaining an Effective Organizational Culture

Changing Culture and Business Reengineering

  • Constant learning is a vital part of every person’s job.

  • Teamwork is essential to successful implementation.

  • Problems are solved only when teams accept the responsibility for the solution.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Organizational controls

High level of interaction

High level of interaction between corporate headquarters and divisions

Ability to share resources and capabilities among divisions

Open communication between corporate and divisional managers

Organizational Controls

Common Strategic Controls

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Ethical practices

Ethical Practices

Developing an ethical organizational culture:

Establish & transmit specific goals describing the firm’s ethical standards (e.g., develop / disseminate a code of conduct).

Continuously revise & update the code of conduct, based on inputs from stakeholders.

Disseminate a code of conduct to all stakeholders to inform them of the firm’s ethical standard / practices.

Develop & implement methods / procedures to use in achieving the firm’s ethical standards.

Have explicit rewards to recognize acts of courage (e.g., using proper channels / procedures to report wrongdoing).

Create a work environment in which all people are treated with dignity.

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


The balanced scorecard

The Balanced Scorecard

  • Complements financial measures of past performance with measures of the drivers of future performance.

  • It should translate a business unit’s mission & strategy into tangible objectives & measures.

  • The objectives and measures view organizational performance from four perspectives.

    • Financial

    • Business Process

    • Internal Business Process

    • Learning & Growth

      Source: “The Balanced Scorecard” by Robert S. Kaplan, David P. Norton

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


The balanced scorecard matrix

The Balanced Scorecard Matrix

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic and financial controls in a balanced scorecard framework

Strategic and Financial Controls in a Balanced Scorecard Framework

Perspectives

Criteria

Financial

  • Cash flow

  • Return on equity

  • Return on assets

Customer

  • Assessment of ability to anticipate customers needs

  • Effectiveness of customer service practices

  • Percentage of repeat business

  • Quality of communications with customers

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


Strategic and financial controls in a balanced scorecard framework1

Strategic and Financial Controls in a Balanced Scorecard Framework

Perspectives

Criteria

Internal Business Process

  • Asset utilization improvements

  • Improvements in employee morale

  • Changes in turnover rates

Learning and Growth

  • Improvements in innovation ability

  • Number of new products compared to competitors

  • Increases in employees’ skills

© 2006 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.


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