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Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices. Chapter 12 & 13. Outline . Sexual Development Puberty Middle Age Hormones Abstinence Hormonal Contraceptive Methods Barrier Methods IUD Fertility Awareness Methods Emergency Contraception. Sterilization Pregnancy Fetal Development

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Outline
Outline

  • Sexual Development

  • Puberty

  • Middle Age Hormones

  • Abstinence

  • Hormonal Contraceptive Methods

  • Barrier Methods

  • IUD

  • Fertility Awareness Methods

  • Emergency Contraception

  • Sterilization

  • Pregnancy

  • Fetal Development

  • Pregnancy & Complications

  • Labor and Delivery

  • Childbirth

  • Infertility


Sexual development
Sexual Development

  • Sexual and reproductive development is directed by hormones that begins during fetal development.

    • Androgens

      • Male sex hormones

      • Secreted by testes

    • Estrogens and progestins

      • Female sex hormones

      • Secreted by ovaries

    • Adrenal gland

      • Secrets androgens in both males and females

    • Pituitary gland and hypothalamus

      • Work to regulate levels and function of sex hormones


Puberty
Puberty

  • Secondary sex characteristics appear

    • Growth spurt

    • Sex organs become larger

    • Increase in hair growth

  • Males

    • Voice deepens

    • Onset of ejaculation and nocturnal emissions

    • Testes start to produce sperm

  • Females (about two years ahead of males)

    • Breast development

    • Body fat increase

    • Onset of menstruation (menarche)


Female menstrual cycle 28 days
Female Menstrual Cycle (28 days)

Days 9 – 18

highest probability of pregnancy if sperm are present


Middle age hormonal changes
Middle Age Hormonal Changes

Menopause

Viropause

  • Gradual reduction in ovarian functioning

  • Symptoms:

    • Hot flashes

    • Night sweats

    • Irritability

    • Insomnia

    • Reduction in bone density

    • Increased cholesterol

  • Androgen decline

  • Symptoms:

    • Decreased sexual desire and/or functioning

    • Irritability

    • Sluggishness

    • Mild to moderate mood swings

  • Continue to produce viable sperm


Choosing a contraceptive method
Choosing a Contraceptive Method

  • Considerations

    • Effectiveness

    • Cost

    • Convenience

    • Permanence

    • Safety

    • Protection against STDs

    • Consistency with personal values

  • Types

    • Abstinence

    • Hormonal contraceptive methods

    • Barrier methods

    • IUD

    • Fertility awareness method

    • Emergency contraception

    • Sterilization


Abstinence
Abstinence

  • Not having sexual intercourse

  • Advantages:

    • Only way to ensure you do not get pregnant

      • Without contraception, 85% of sexually active women will become pregnant within one year.

    • Free

    • Available to all

    • Can start at anytime

  • Disadvantages:

    • Requires control and commitment

    • Not abstaining from other sexual activities can still lead to STD infection




How to buy and use condoms
How to Buy and Use Condoms

  • Choose latex if you or your partner are not allergic

  • Check expiration date

    • Expired condoms are more likely to break

  • Buy condoms without spermicide

  • Do not remove it from wrapper until you are ready to use it

  • Don’t leave condoms in a place where they may be exposed to heat.

    • Wallets, glove compartments of a car, etc.

  • Do not use oil based lubricants with condoms

  • Use condoms correctly (see figure 13.2 & 13.3)





Emergency contraception
Emergency Contraception

  • Reduces risk of pregnancy in cases of rape, unprotected sex, or failure of a barrier method

  • Available over the counter if you are > 18 years old

  • Most effective within 48 - 72 hours

  • Works by preventing ovulation and fertilization

  • Side effects:

    • Nausea

    • Vomiting

    • Altered menstrual cycle

  • Not the same as the abortion pill


Sterilization
Sterilization

  • A surgical procedure that permanently prevents any future pregnancies

  • Vasectomy

    • Small incision made in scrotum

    • Tie off and sever the vas deferens

    • Quick, simple procedure

  • Tubal ligation

    • Laparoscopic surgery through the abdomen

    • Sever and seal fallopian tubes

    • Invasive


Unintended pregnancy
Unintended Pregnancy

  • Carry the pregnancy to term and raise the child

    • How do you know you are ready? (almost impossible to ever be completely ready)

      • Long-term educational goals

      • Relationship with your partner

      • Emotional maturity

      • Financial situation

      • Social support system

      • Health status and age

  • Carry the pregnancy to term and place the child up for adoption

    • Open versus closed adoption

  • Terminate the pregnancy

    • Elective versus spontaneous abortion

    • Surgical (2 – 8 weeks of gestation)

    • Medical (early< 7 weeks or late > 15 weeks)

      • RU486 (pill)

      • Induce labor or perform surgery



Pregnancy complications
Pregnancy & Complications

  • Miscarriage

    • Approximately 15-20% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage

  • Gestational Diabetes

  • Preeclampsia:

    • Mother’s blood pressure becomes elevated and can be life threatening

  • Infant death:

    • Stillbirth

    • Low Birth Weight

  • Birth Defects

    • ~5% of babies born in the United States

  • Several tests have been developed to detect abnormalities in a fetus prior to birth

    • Alpha-Fetoprotein Measurement (AFP)

    • Ultrasound

    • Chromosomal Analysis

      • Chorionic Villus sampling

      • Amniocentesis



Childbirth
Childbirth

Delivery of head

Crowning

Baby after delivery

Placenta after delivery


Delivery the postpartum period
Delivery & The Postpartum Period

  • Cesarean-section

    • Surgical delivery of infant through the abdominal wall

  • Newborn screening

    • Apgar scale: 0-2 points for each major condition of baby to add up to 10 points

  • Postpartum period

    • First few months after childbirth

    • Issues for the newborn that deserve attention include:

      • Growth and nutrition, illness and vaccinations, adjustment and attachment


Infertility
Infertility

Causes of Infertility

Treating Infertility

  • Low sperm count

  • Poor sperm motility

  • Lack of ovulation

  • Obstruction of fallopian tubes

  • Surgery

  • Intrauterine Insemination

  • Fertility drugs

  • IVF


For next time
For Next Time

  • Study for Exam #3


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