Sexual health reproductive choices
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Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices. Chapter 12 & 13. Outline . Sexual Development Puberty Middle Age Hormones Abstinence Hormonal Contraceptive Methods Barrier Methods IUD Fertility Awareness Methods Emergency Contraception. Sterilization Pregnancy Fetal Development

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Sexual health reproductive choices

Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices

Chapter 12 & 13


Outline

Outline

  • Sexual Development

  • Puberty

  • Middle Age Hormones

  • Abstinence

  • Hormonal Contraceptive Methods

  • Barrier Methods

  • IUD

  • Fertility Awareness Methods

  • Emergency Contraception

  • Sterilization

  • Pregnancy

  • Fetal Development

  • Pregnancy & Complications

  • Labor and Delivery

  • Childbirth

  • Infertility


Sexual development

Sexual Development

  • Sexual and reproductive development is directed by hormones that begins during fetal development.

    • Androgens

      • Male sex hormones

      • Secreted by testes

    • Estrogens and progestins

      • Female sex hormones

      • Secreted by ovaries

    • Adrenal gland

      • Secrets androgens in both males and females

    • Pituitary gland and hypothalamus

      • Work to regulate levels and function of sex hormones


Puberty

Puberty

  • Secondary sex characteristics appear

    • Growth spurt

    • Sex organs become larger

    • Increase in hair growth

  • Males

    • Voice deepens

    • Onset of ejaculation and nocturnal emissions

    • Testes start to produce sperm

  • Females (about two years ahead of males)

    • Breast development

    • Body fat increase

    • Onset of menstruation (menarche)


Female menstrual cycle 28 days

Female Menstrual Cycle (28 days)

Days 9 – 18

highest probability of pregnancy if sperm are present


Middle age hormonal changes

Middle Age Hormonal Changes

Menopause

Viropause

  • Gradual reduction in ovarian functioning

  • Symptoms:

    • Hot flashes

    • Night sweats

    • Irritability

    • Insomnia

    • Reduction in bone density

    • Increased cholesterol

  • Androgen decline

  • Symptoms:

    • Decreased sexual desire and/or functioning

    • Irritability

    • Sluggishness

    • Mild to moderate mood swings

  • Continue to produce viable sperm


Choosing a contraceptive method

Choosing a Contraceptive Method

  • Considerations

    • Effectiveness

    • Cost

    • Convenience

    • Permanence

    • Safety

    • Protection against STDs

    • Consistency with personal values

  • Types

    • Abstinence

    • Hormonal contraceptive methods

    • Barrier methods

    • IUD

    • Fertility awareness method

    • Emergency contraception

    • Sterilization


Abstinence

Abstinence

  • Not having sexual intercourse

  • Advantages:

    • Only way to ensure you do not get pregnant

      • Without contraception, 85% of sexually active women will become pregnant within one year.

    • Free

    • Available to all

    • Can start at anytime

  • Disadvantages:

    • Requires control and commitment

    • Not abstaining from other sexual activities can still lead to STD infection


Hormonal contraceptive methods

Hormonal Contraceptive Methods


Barrier methods condoms

Barrier Methods (Condoms)


How to buy and use condoms

How to Buy and Use Condoms

  • Choose latex if you or your partner are not allergic

  • Check expiration date

    • Expired condoms are more likely to break

  • Buy condoms without spermicide

  • Do not remove it from wrapper until you are ready to use it

  • Don’t leave condoms in a place where they may be exposed to heat.

    • Wallets, glove compartments of a car, etc.

  • Do not use oil based lubricants with condoms

  • Use condoms correctly (see figure 13.2 & 13.3)


Barrier methods

Barrier Methods


Intrauterine device iud

Intrauterine Device (IUD)


Fertility awareness method

Fertility Awareness Method


Emergency contraception

Emergency Contraception

  • Reduces risk of pregnancy in cases of rape, unprotected sex, or failure of a barrier method

  • Available over the counter if you are > 18 years old

  • Most effective within 48 - 72 hours

  • Works by preventing ovulation and fertilization

  • Side effects:

    • Nausea

    • Vomiting

    • Altered menstrual cycle

  • Not the same as the abortion pill


Sterilization

Sterilization

  • A surgical procedure that permanently prevents any future pregnancies

  • Vasectomy

    • Small incision made in scrotum

    • Tie off and sever the vas deferens

    • Quick, simple procedure

  • Tubal ligation

    • Laparoscopic surgery through the abdomen

    • Sever and seal fallopian tubes

    • Invasive


Unintended pregnancy

Unintended Pregnancy

  • Carry the pregnancy to term and raise the child

    • How do you know you are ready? (almost impossible to ever be completely ready)

      • Long-term educational goals

      • Relationship with your partner

      • Emotional maturity

      • Financial situation

      • Social support system

      • Health status and age

  • Carry the pregnancy to term and place the child up for adoption

    • Open versus closed adoption

  • Terminate the pregnancy

    • Elective versus spontaneous abortion

    • Surgical (2 – 8 weeks of gestation)

    • Medical (early< 7 weeks or late > 15 weeks)

      • RU486 (pill)

      • Induce labor or perform surgery


Fetal development

Fetal Development


Pregnancy complications

Pregnancy & Complications

  • Miscarriage

    • Approximately 15-20% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage

  • Gestational Diabetes

  • Preeclampsia:

    • Mother’s blood pressure becomes elevated and can be life threatening

  • Infant death:

    • Stillbirth

    • Low Birth Weight

  • Birth Defects

    • ~5% of babies born in the United States

  • Several tests have been developed to detect abnormalities in a fetus prior to birth

    • Alpha-Fetoprotein Measurement (AFP)

    • Ultrasound

    • Chromosomal Analysis

      • Chorionic Villus sampling

      • Amniocentesis


Labor and delivery

Labor and Delivery


Childbirth

Childbirth

Delivery of head

Crowning

Baby after delivery

Placenta after delivery


Delivery the postpartum period

Delivery & The Postpartum Period

  • Cesarean-section

    • Surgical delivery of infant through the abdominal wall

  • Newborn screening

    • Apgar scale: 0-2 points for each major condition of baby to add up to 10 points

  • Postpartum period

    • First few months after childbirth

    • Issues for the newborn that deserve attention include:

      • Growth and nutrition, illness and vaccinations, adjustment and attachment


Infertility

Infertility

Causes of Infertility

Treating Infertility

  • Low sperm count

  • Poor sperm motility

  • Lack of ovulation

  • Obstruction of fallopian tubes

  • Surgery

  • Intrauterine Insemination

  • Fertility drugs

  • IVF


For next time

For Next Time

  • Study for Exam #3


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