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Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices

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Sexual Health & Reproductive Choices. Chapter 12 & 13. Outline . Sexual Development Puberty Middle Age Hormones Abstinence Hormonal Contraceptive Methods Barrier Methods IUD Fertility Awareness Methods Emergency Contraception. Sterilization Pregnancy Fetal Development

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outline
Outline
  • Sexual Development
  • Puberty
  • Middle Age Hormones
  • Abstinence
  • Hormonal Contraceptive Methods
  • Barrier Methods
  • IUD
  • Fertility Awareness Methods
  • Emergency Contraception
  • Sterilization
  • Pregnancy
  • Fetal Development
  • Pregnancy & Complications
  • Labor and Delivery
  • Childbirth
  • Infertility
sexual development
Sexual Development
  • Sexual and reproductive development is directed by hormones that begins during fetal development.
    • Androgens
      • Male sex hormones
      • Secreted by testes
    • Estrogens and progestins
      • Female sex hormones
      • Secreted by ovaries
    • Adrenal gland
      • Secrets androgens in both males and females
    • Pituitary gland and hypothalamus
      • Work to regulate levels and function of sex hormones
puberty
Puberty
  • Secondary sex characteristics appear
    • Growth spurt
    • Sex organs become larger
    • Increase in hair growth
  • Males
    • Voice deepens
    • Onset of ejaculation and nocturnal emissions
    • Testes start to produce sperm
  • Females (about two years ahead of males)
    • Breast development
    • Body fat increase
    • Onset of menstruation (menarche)
female menstrual cycle 28 days
Female Menstrual Cycle (28 days)

Days 9 – 18

highest probability of pregnancy if sperm are present

middle age hormonal changes
Middle Age Hormonal Changes

Menopause

Viropause

  • Gradual reduction in ovarian functioning
  • Symptoms:
    • Hot flashes
    • Night sweats
    • Irritability
    • Insomnia
    • Reduction in bone density
    • Increased cholesterol
  • Androgen decline
  • Symptoms:
    • Decreased sexual desire and/or functioning
    • Irritability
    • Sluggishness
    • Mild to moderate mood swings
  • Continue to produce viable sperm
choosing a contraceptive method
Choosing a Contraceptive Method
  • Considerations
    • Effectiveness
    • Cost
    • Convenience
    • Permanence
    • Safety
    • Protection against STDs
    • Consistency with personal values
  • Types
    • Abstinence
    • Hormonal contraceptive methods
    • Barrier methods
    • IUD
    • Fertility awareness method
    • Emergency contraception
    • Sterilization
abstinence
Abstinence
  • Not having sexual intercourse
  • Advantages:
    • Only way to ensure you do not get pregnant
      • Without contraception, 85% of sexually active women will become pregnant within one year.
    • Free
    • Available to all
    • Can start at anytime
  • Disadvantages:
    • Requires control and commitment
    • Not abstaining from other sexual activities can still lead to STD infection
how to buy and use condoms
How to Buy and Use Condoms
  • Choose latex if you or your partner are not allergic
  • Check expiration date
    • Expired condoms are more likely to break
  • Buy condoms without spermicide
  • Do not remove it from wrapper until you are ready to use it
  • Don’t leave condoms in a place where they may be exposed to heat.
    • Wallets, glove compartments of a car, etc.
  • Do not use oil based lubricants with condoms
  • Use condoms correctly (see figure 13.2 & 13.3)
emergency contraception
Emergency Contraception
  • Reduces risk of pregnancy in cases of rape, unprotected sex, or failure of a barrier method
  • Available over the counter if you are > 18 years old
  • Most effective within 48 - 72 hours
  • Works by preventing ovulation and fertilization
  • Side effects:
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Altered menstrual cycle
  • Not the same as the abortion pill
sterilization
Sterilization
  • A surgical procedure that permanently prevents any future pregnancies
  • Vasectomy
    • Small incision made in scrotum
    • Tie off and sever the vas deferens
    • Quick, simple procedure
  • Tubal ligation
    • Laparoscopic surgery through the abdomen
    • Sever and seal fallopian tubes
    • Invasive
unintended pregnancy
Unintended Pregnancy
  • Carry the pregnancy to term and raise the child
    • How do you know you are ready? (almost impossible to ever be completely ready)
      • Long-term educational goals
      • Relationship with your partner
      • Emotional maturity
      • Financial situation
      • Social support system
      • Health status and age
  • Carry the pregnancy to term and place the child up for adoption
    • Open versus closed adoption
  • Terminate the pregnancy
    • Elective versus spontaneous abortion
    • Surgical (2 – 8 weeks of gestation)
    • Medical (early< 7 weeks or late > 15 weeks)
      • RU486 (pill)
      • Induce labor or perform surgery
pregnancy complications
Pregnancy & Complications
  • Miscarriage
    • Approximately 15-20% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • Preeclampsia:
    • Mother’s blood pressure becomes elevated and can be life threatening
  • Infant death:
    • Stillbirth
    • Low Birth Weight
  • Birth Defects
    • ~5% of babies born in the United States
  • Several tests have been developed to detect abnormalities in a fetus prior to birth
    • Alpha-Fetoprotein Measurement (AFP)
    • Ultrasound
    • Chromosomal Analysis
      • Chorionic Villus sampling
      • Amniocentesis
childbirth
Childbirth

Delivery of head

Crowning

Baby after delivery

Placenta after delivery

delivery the postpartum period
Delivery & The Postpartum Period
  • Cesarean-section
    • Surgical delivery of infant through the abdominal wall
  • Newborn screening
    • Apgar scale: 0-2 points for each major condition of baby to add up to 10 points
  • Postpartum period
    • First few months after childbirth
    • Issues for the newborn that deserve attention include:
      • Growth and nutrition, illness and vaccinations, adjustment and attachment
infertility
Infertility

Causes of Infertility

Treating Infertility

  • Low sperm count
  • Poor sperm motility
  • Lack of ovulation
  • Obstruction of fallopian tubes
  • Surgery
  • Intrauterine Insemination
  • Fertility drugs
  • IVF
for next time
For Next Time
  • Study for Exam #3
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