the gilded age 1877 1900
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The Gilded Age 1877-1900 . Technological Advances . Telephone Bicycle Typewriter Elevator Root Beer Linoleum “floor covering of the future” Steel (skyscrapers, bridges) . Industrialization and The Rise of Big Business .

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technological advances
Technological Advances
  • Telephone
  • Bicycle
  • Typewriter
  • Elevator
  • Root Beer
  • Linoleum “floor covering of the future”
  • Steel (skyscrapers, bridges)
industrialization and the rise of big business
Industrialization and The Rise of Big Business
  • During the Gilded Age, huge corporations were formed that employed thousands and produced enormous amounts of goods
  • The founders of these companies amassed great wealth while their workers were poorly paid
captains of industry
Captains of Industry
  • Andrew Carnegie: bought out his suppliers and his competitors until he controlled the steel industry.
  • John D. Rockefeller: turned his company into a “trust” by buying stock in his competitors companies until he controlled them.
sherman anti trust act
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • Passed in 1890 to make trusts illegal
  • Companies found many ways to get around this law
  • 1906-, the government brought suit against Standard Oil and in 1911 the trust was finally ordered to dissolve
the problems of the industrial workers
The Problems of the Industrial Workers
  • There was almost no federal government regulation of businesses at this time, therefore there was: nominimum wage,nomaximum number of hours per week,nohigher pay for overtime,noregulation of unhealthy or unsafe working conditions, andnohealth insurance or other employee benefits.
  • Industrialization created low-wage, low-skilled jobs that made employees easy to replace. This led to the growth of labor unions.
communication improves
Communication Improves
  • 1866- Transatlantic telegraph cable
  • 1876- telephone- by 1900- 1.5 million phones installed
  • Improvements in printing- wide circulation of newspapers- mass advertising
mass production
Mass Production
  • From small shops to large factories
  • Workers perform 1 task over and over again
  • Long hours
    • 10-15 hours per day
    • 6-7 days per week
the early labor union movement
The Early Labor Union Movement
  • Labor Unions tried to improve wages and working conditions by collective bargaining and threatening strikes
  • Between 1877 and 1893 there were several huge strikes
  • Union popularity declined because the public associated labor unions with violence
the problems of farmers
The Problems of Farmers
  • Westward expansion led to overproduction of crops – farm prices drop
  • Railroad rates going up- more expensive to transport crops
  • Farmers became deeply in debt
  • Farmers began the Populist Movement
    • Asking for rr regulation and monetary reform to releive their indebtedness
problems of immigrants
Problems of Immigrants
  • The thousands of immigrants that came from Southern and Eastern Europe between 1890-1915 were often poor and illiterate
  • They accepted unskilled jobs in factories and had to move in to overly crowded cities
problems of immigrants con t
Problems of Immigrants (Con’t)
  • Triple Hardship: low wages, pooe housing conditions, and nativism (prejudice against immigrants)
  • Nativists encouraged the government to pass immigration restriction laws
problems of minorities
Problems of Minorities
  • The right to vote promised by the Fifteenth Amendment was undermined by the use of poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses
  • Asians: The Chinese Exclusion Act banned further immigration from China
big cities
Big Cities
  • Tightly knit ethnic communities begin to shape the big cities
urban problems
Urban Problems
  • Industrial cities grew rapidly ad poor workers lived in slums
  • Police and fire departments were understaffed
  • Clean water and sewer systems were inadequate
  • Tenement houses were were crowded and unsafe
urban problems con t
Urban Problems (Con’t)
  • City governments were often corrupt “political macines” stayed in power by winning the votes of the immigrants, but often abused their power
  • Graft is when a public official uses his office to make himself rich through bribery or stealing public funds
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