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THE TORO ET AL. STUDY (RATS)

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The toro et al study rats

Fig. 1. Average number of high amplitude sucks per minute for babies in the control (speaker change, dotted lines) and experimental (speaker and language change, solid lines) groups. Minutes are numbered from the time of change. Error bars represent 61 SEM. (A) Natural sentences played forward. (B)

Same sentences synthesized. (C) Same sentences

synthesized and played backward.

Fig. 2. Number of tamarins responding positively (white bars) and negatively (hatched bars) to test sentence depending on condition: language or speaker change, sentences played forward or backward. (A) Natural sentences. (B) Synthesized

sentences. (C) Data from experiments 2A and 2B

pooled together. *P , 0.05. **P , 0.01.


The toro et al study rats

THE TORO ET AL. STUDY (RATS)


The toro et al study rats

A few years ago we began to explore the brain

neural substrate of speech processing by very

young infants.

PEÑA ET AL (2003) Sounds and Silence: An OT study of

language recognition.

If we had not worried so much about publishing this paper

We would have entiteled it “..speech processing.”


The toro et al study rats

We were interested in the FW vs BW discrimination and

lateralization


The toro et al study rats

To run the PNAS study we used a ETG 100 at a

Trieste Hospital

Our procedure was as follows:


The toro et al study rats

PLOT OF GRAND AVERAGE OF TOT.Hb (mmol/mm) OVER 5 SEC WINDOWS

FW

BW

Sil


The toro et al study rats

After Marcela and her colleagues finished their work

We received an ETG 4000

This machine has channels separated by 2cm and we

ordered a set of probes with a 3cm distance

The wavelength between the machines was also modified

Shukla, Peña, et al. decided to replicate the PNAS results


The toro et al study rats

LH

1

2

2

1

RH

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

Fw > Bw (at Ch7,8,911 of both Hemispheres) ; P <0.026)

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

LH

RH

1

2

2

1

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

LH

1

2

2

1

RH

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

LH

1

2

2

1

RH

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

LH

RH

1

2

2

1

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

LH

1

2

2

1

RH

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

The Shukla et al studies tend to be quite similar to the

ones we had observed in Trieste. However, the

results did not indicate that the LH (lower channels)

respond more to FW than the homologous channels on the

RH

AN IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BOTH STUDIES

WAS DUE TO HOW THE PROBES WERE PLACED. IN

THE UDINE STUDY THREE PEOPLE PLACED PROBES

WHICH WAS NOT THE CASE IN THE TRIESTE STUDY

A NEW REPLICATION WAS RUN WITH A VERY SMALL

NUMBER OF INFANTS BUT WITH MARCELA PLACING

THE PROBES


The toro et al study rats

LH

RH

1

2

2

1

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

p<0.05

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

LH

RH

1

2

2

1

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

LH

1

2

2

1

RH

3

4

5

5

4

3

6

7

7

6

8

9

10

10

9

8

Fw Bw Sil

.1

-.1

11

12

12

11

-5 35


The toro et al study rats

COLLABORATORS:

MARCELA

MOHINISH

JUDIT

AGNES


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