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INLS 520. Information Organization. Review. “core” skills for the LIS profession Metadata Models FRBR, MARC. Today. Web slices? The standard , The Video Classification Overview & History Related concepts Examples Transformation What is XSL?, How is it like programming?.

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Inls 520

INLS 520

Information Organization

INLS 520 – Fall 2007

Erik Mitchell


Review

Review

  • “core” skills for the LIS profession

  • Metadata Models

    • FRBR, MARC

INLS 520 – Fall 2007

Erik Mitchell


Today

Today

  • Web slices?

    • The standard, The Video

  • Classification

    • Overview & History

    • Related concepts

    • Examples

  • Transformation

    • What is XSL?, How is it like programming?

INLS 520 – Fall 2007

Erik Mitchell


Class discussion

Class Discussion

  • Read your page from Lancaster – as a group compare and summarize his classification ideas.

  • Questions

    • To what extent does classification help us represent knowledge?

    • Based on Lancaster’s ideas, how would you approach the creation of a classification system?

INLS 520 – Fall 2007

Erik Mitchell


Langridge classification

Langridge & classification

  • Nature of classification

    • In the beginning are words

    • The same objects or ideas may be classified in many ways

    • Classifications are made, not discovered

    • Choice of classification is always related to purpose

  • Fundamentals of classification

    • Study of classification must start with concepts

    • Logic includes the fundamental principles of classification

    • There are practical difficulties with logical division

  • The Classification of knowledge

    • Scientific classification is highly specialized

    • Classification of phenomena is not limited to the sciences

    • There is no unity of knowledge

    • Bibliographic classification of knowledge is a secondary form

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Classification is power

    Classification is power

    • “The idea of a category is central... Most symbols (i.e., words & representations) do not designate particular things or individuals in the world... Most of our words & concepts designate categories. There is nothing more basic than categorization to our though, perception, action & speech. Every time we see something as a kind of thing, for example, a tree, we are categorizing.”

      • George Lakoff, Women,Fire, and Dangerous Things: What categories reveal about the mind

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    More quotes

    More quotes. . .

    “Any time we either produce or understand an utterance of any reasonable length, we are employing dozens if not hundreds of categories: categories of speech sounds, of words, of phrases and clauses, as well as conceptual categories.” (Lakoff, 6).

    “Taxonomies are reflections of human thought; they express our most fundamental concepts about the objects of our universe” (Wright, 23).

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Classification

    Classification

    • Roots

      • Foundation of knowledge

      • Embedded in nature / human nature

    • Related disciplines

      • Psychology, cognitive science

      • Education

      • Library/information science

        • Knowledge Management

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Classification definitions

    Classification Definitions

    • “The arrangement of knowledge into specific groups or systems” wur.nl

    • “A classification is the separation or ordering of objects (or specimens) into classes. Classifications that are created non-empirically are called a priori classifications. Classifications that are created empirically by looking at the data are called a posteriori classifications” – ee.oulu.fi

    • Lumping & splitting based on a root or principle – Weinberger

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Grounding

    Grounding

    • Memes (Richard Dawkins)

      • Transfer of concept between members of a group (bees dancing)

  • Collective intelligence

    • Knowledge of networks is greater than sum of individuals

  • Stigmergy (Grasse)

    • Coding of information in environment

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Cross cultural similarities

    Cross-cultural similarities

    • Wilson & Epigenetic rules

      • Changes in how we behave based on environmental impact

      • Primary (perception) & secondary (grouping)

  • Cecil Brown, Berlin & Folk classifications

    • Hierarchies, Groupings of 5-6 nested categories

    • Concept of “real names” - Rose versus plant

    • Binary discrimination (differentiation)

    • Lateralization (grouping objects together)

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Berlin s levels of classification

    Berlin’s levels of classification

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell

    Adapted from Wright, 2007


    Categorization vs classification

    Categorization vs classification

    • Wordnet doesn’t differentiate

    • Is it

      • description (categorization) vs primary topicality (classification)?

      • Relevant only for print resources which require a “place”? (notation system)

      • Order matters in classification but not categorization?

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    History aristotle 384 322 bce

    History - Aristotle (384-322 BCE)

    • Pure form

    • Physical/behavioral traits

    • Clear boundaries, hierarchies, relationships

    • Commonly held until 19th century

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Aristotle s categories

    10 Categories

    Substance

    Quality

    Quantity

    Relation

    Where

    When

    Position

    Having

    Action

    Passion

    5 Predicables

    Genus

    that part of the essence shared by distinct species

    Species

    a group of things similar in essence

    Differentia

    that part of the essence peculiar to a given species

    Property

    an attribute shared by all members of a species but not part of its essence

    Accident

    An attribute shared by some but not all

    Aristotle’s Categories

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Callimachus 305 240 bc

    Epic, and other non dramatic poetry

    Drama

    Law

    Philosophy

    History

    Oratory

    Medicine

    Mathematical science

    Natural Science

    Miscellanea

    Callimachus (305-240 BC)

    Poet, critic, and scholar of the Library of Alexandria, created a bibliography (pinakes) of works in the library

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Linnaeus 1707 1778

    Linnaeus (1707-1778)

    • Linnaean Taxonomy

      • An example

    • Basis

      • Structural similarities of organisms

      • Plants, Animals ,Minerals

    • Contrasting models

      • Cladistics (evolution / Darwin)

      • Molecular phylogeny – tree

      • An overview of approaches

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Linnaean taxonomy

    Linnaean taxonomy

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Barcode of life initiative boli

    Barcode of Life Initiative (BOLI)

    • In the news as:

      • WASHINGTON (AP) - To help shoppers avoid mislabeled toxic pufferfish and pilots steer clear of birds, federal agencies are starting to tap into an ambitious project that is gathering DNA ``barcodes'' for the Earth's 1.8 million known species.

  • Interesting comments:

    • In more than 95% of cases, species recognized through past taxonomic work have been found to possess distinct barcodes. A few very similar species share barcodes, reflecting cases where barcoding does not provide full taxonomic resolution.

  • Links

    • http://barcoding.si.edu/

    • http://www.fishbol.org/

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Modern thought on classification

    Modern thought on Classification

    • Importance of personal/social/political perspectives in knowledge

    • Relationship of language, linguistics, metaphor to the ideas of classification and knowledge

    • Relativism vs Absolutism

    • Impact on other disciplines

      • Education – Dewey, Bruner, Vygotsky

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Ludwig wittgenstein 1889 1951

    Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)

    • “The limits of my language mean the limits of my world” – from Internet dictionary of philosophy

    • Meaning is contextual (personal, social) and conveyed through language

    • Game Theory

      • Players, rules, strategies, outcomes, benefits

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Eleanore rosch 1938

    Eleanore Rosch (1938- )

    • Prototype Theory

      • The idea of best ‘form’ without absolute restriction

        • E.g. a robin is a prototype of a bird

        • Family resemblance model

    • Categorization is about saving cognitive effort

      • ‘on the fly’ relationship judgments

      • Contextualized meaning, information use

      • A basic category/prototype allows us to make relationship judgments at an appropriate level

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    S r ranganathan 1897 1972

    S.R. Ranganathan (1897-1972)

    • Ranganathan

      • Like Linnaeus, didn’t want to be a librarian – took the job for the pay.

      • 5 Laws of Library science

        • Books are for use.

        • Every reader his or her book.

        • Every book its reader.

        • Save the time of the reader.

        • The library is a growing organism.

    • Colon Classification

      • first faceted classification system

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Colon classification system 1

    Colon classification system (1)

    PMESTExamples

    • Personality Furniture(?)

    • MatterWood(?)

    • EnergyDesign(?)

    • SpaceAmerica(?)

    • Time18th Century(?)

  • What makes a faceted system different?

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Colon classification system 2

    Colon Classification system (2)

    • Analytico-Synthetic

      • Analysis: Discover basic concepts

      • Synthesis: Combine discrete parts into a classification system

    • An example from

      • UBCL,45;421:6;253:f.44‘N5

      • An outline from ISKO

        L,45;421:

        Medicine,Lungs;Tuberculosis:

        6;253:f.44‘N5

        Treatment;X-ray:Research.India‘1950

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Theoretical concepts

    Theoretical concepts

    • Ambiguity / disambiguation

    • Homogeneity / heterogeneity

    • Specificity / Exhaustiveness

    • Modulation

    • Lumping / Splitting

    • Mutual exclusivity

    • Bifurcation

    • Necessity / sufficiency

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Approaches to classification

    Approaches to Classification

    • “Top Down”

      • Start with theoretical foundation and create a hierarchy to assign members to

  • “Bottom Up”

    • Analyze members of domain & build categories

  • “Analytico-synthetic”

    • Analyze specific concepts, assemble to create classification

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Models of organization

    Models of organization

    • Based on descriptive metadata

      • Alphabetical, chronological, geographic, element (title, author, etc)

  • Topical / Subject based

    • LCSH, ACM, etc

  • Task/action

    • Ebay – buyers/sellers

  • Audience / user centric

    • The Imaginon, Library Loft

  • Metaphor

    • The desktop metaphor for example, Second Life

  • Hybrid models

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Types of systems

    Types of systems

    • Enumerative systems

      • Lists of objects grouped under headings

        • DDC, UDC, LCC

    • Hierarchical systems

      • Entries based on a tree structure, inheritance, child/descendant/ancestor

      • Top-down, bottom-up

        • Taxonomies (tree structures, XML)

    • Faceted systems

      • Multiple relationships

        • Ontologies (typed relationships) think RDF

    • Miscellaneous systems

      • Folksonomies

        • Del.icio.us, furl, flickr

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Classification scheme components

    Classification Scheme Components

    • Schedule, the system…

      • the classification schema

        • ACM: http://www.acm.org/class/1998/ccs98.html

        • Genes: http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~genomes/mthermo/mthermo_files/classes_table.html

      • tables, generally help you to synthesize build number

        • IISD: http://www.iisd.org/ic/classification.asp

        • Fruit fly: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/diptera/tephriti/Clastabl.htm

        • Notation – the symbols used to codify your classification

    • Subject coverage / domain

      • general (e.g. DDC) or subject specific (e.g. ACM)

      • Bugnet: http://bugguide.net/node/view/15740

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Hunter s classification process 1

    Hunter’s classification process (1)

    • Eight steps to creating a classification system (steps 1-4)

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Hunter s classification process 11

    Hunter’s classification process (1)

    • Eight steps to creating a classification system (steps 5-8)

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Enumerative examples

    Enumerative Examples

    • Dewey Decimal (really a hybrid)

      • BULB LINK (DDC)

    • Universal Decimal Classification (also a hybrid)

      • http://www.udcc.org/outline/outline.htm

    • Mathematical Subject Classification

      • http://www.ams.org/mathweb/mi-mathbyclass.html

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Hierarchical systems

    Hierarchical Systems

    • Super-ordinate and sub-ordinate

    • Genus/species

    • Class/member

      More flexible application in classification systems than in terminological tools (thesauri, ontologies, etc.)

    • Yahoo! example: Directory > Science > Computer Science > Artificial Intelligence > Fuzzy Logic

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Hierarchical enumerative examples

    Hierarchical/Enumerative examples

    • LC Headings

      • History

        • History of the Americas

          • British America

            • Canada

        • Scientific history

          • ......

    • ACM

      • E. Data

        • E.2 Data Storage Representations

          • Object Representations

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Faceted classification systems

    Faceted Classification Systems

    • Definitions:

      • “One side of a many sided body” (OED)

    • Basis

      • Analytico-synthetic

        • System: Fundamental concepts are analyzed and grouped together into facets

        • Concepts are combined or “synthesized” as necessary to form more complex subjects

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Faceted classification examples

    Faceted Classification Examples

    • Flamenco Project

      • http://flamenco.berkeley.edu/index.html

    • AAT (Art and Architecture Thesaurus)

      • “The conceptual framework of facets and hierarchies in the AAT is designed to allow a general classification scheme for art and architecture. The framework is not subject-specific; for example, there is no defined portion of the AAT that is specific only for Renaissance painting.”from AAT site

  • Associated Concepts, Physical Attributes, Styles and Periods, Agents, Activities, Materials, Objects

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Miscellaneous systems

    Miscellaneous Systems

    • User assigned tags – not really ‘classification’.

    • Is structured classification is really as good as we think? Is this as good / better?

      • Del.icio.us

      • Flickr

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Programming 101

    Programming 101

    • What is a program?

    • What concepts do we need to understand?

    • Is XSL a programming language?

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Programming 1011

    Programming 101

    • Definition:

      • “the act of creating software or some other set of instructions for a computer.” [1]

    • Examples

      • Dynamic web sites

      • Compiled applications (like Firefox)

      • Small applications that perform a specific task (such as transform metadata)

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Definitions

    Definitions

    • Programming Language

      • “A formal language used to write instructions that can be translated into machine language and then executed by a computer.” (definitions)

  • Scripting Language

    • Run-time (does not require compilation)

    • Restricted context (requires a specific environment)

    • Functional / Object oriented

    • Definitions

  • Compiler / Interpreter

    • A program that builds and executes a program. Compilers create a self-executable file, interpreters read a text script at run-time


  • Programming approaches

    Programming approaches

    • Logical/structural programming

      • Stream of consciousness

      • Starts at line 1

  • Procedural programming

    • Uses functions, sub-functions, subroutines

    • Encapsulation, modularization

  • Object-oriented programming

    • Further encapsulation

    • Uses concepts of inheritance, modularity


  • Flow of document models

    Flow of Document Models

    What is the relationship of the data model to the intended document use in the four following document examples?

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    The programming process

    The programming process

    • Analyze the problem

      • What do you want your program to do?

      • What are your users expecting, what data do you have?

  • Plan program flow/logic

    • What steps need to occur, in what order?

    • Useful tools include Step-Form, flowcharts, and pseudocode

  • Code the program

    • Create variables, routines, functions

  • Compile/run the program

  • Test, verify

  • Release


  • Programming 101 concepts

    Programming 101 - Concepts

    • General structure

      • Programs have a ‘flow’ to them

      • Programs use functions, algorithms, and objects to compartmentalize operations

      • Programs follow a specific syntax (their own document model)

      • Programs operate in specific environments (compiled platforms, run-time platforms)

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Programming 101 concepts1

    Programming 101 – Concepts

    • Control Structures

      • Looping (while)

      • Decision making (if)

    • Variables

      • Store information for use/reuse

      • A simple varaible is name=value

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Programming 101 xsl

    Programming 101 - XSL

    • Is XSL programming?

    • What can we use XSL for?

    • Why are we covering it here?

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Xsl overview

    XSL Overview

    • Extensible Stylesheet Language

    • Components

      • Defined XML standard which is used in conjunction with a transformation engine to transform XML data

      • Xquery/Xpath

    • Capabilities, limitations

      • Document processing

      • Semi-functional programming language


    Xsl introduction

    XSL Introduction

    • Styling

      • XSL - eXtensible Style Language

    • Querying

      • XPath

      • XQuery

      • XPointer

      • XLink

    • Good resources for reference

      • http://www.w3schools.com/xsl/default.asp

      • http://www.w3.org/Style/XSL/

      • http://www.w3schools.com/css/default.asp

      • http://www.csstutorial.net/


    Xsl overview 1

    XSL Overview - 1

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

    <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0"

    xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">

    <xsl:output method="html"/>

    <xsl:template match="/dc">

    Processing Instructions

    </xsl:template>

    </xsl:stylesheet>


    Contents of xsl template

    Contents of <xsl:template...>

    <html>

    <head>

    <title>Sample XSL transformation</title>

    </head>

    <body>

    <xsl:for-each select="*">

    <p>

    <b>

    <xsl:value-of select="name(.)"/>

    <xsl:text>:</xsl:text>

    </b>

    <xsl:value-of select="./text()"/>

    </p>

    </xsl:for-each>

    </body>

    </html>


    Xsl sample stylesheet

    XSL – Sample Stylesheet

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

    <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">

    <xsl:template match="/rss">

    <html>

    <body>

    <xsl:for-each select="./channel/item">

    <xsl:value-of select="title"/><br/>

    </xsl:for-each>

    </body>

    </html>

    </xsl:template>

    </xsl:stylesheet>

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Xsl control structures

    XSL Control Structures

    • For Each

      • <xsl:for-each select=“/date”></xsl:for-each>

  • Choosing between options

    • <xsl:choose>

      • <xsl:when select=“contains(/URL, “.edu”)>

      • </xsl:when>

    • </xsl:choose>

  • If

    • <xsl:if test=“./title != ‘’> </xsl:if>


  • Xsl templates

    XSL Templates

    • Templates work like functions

    • Defining a template

      • <xsl:template name=“myName”>

        • <xsl:for-each…..>

        • </xsl:for-each>

      • </xsl:template>

  • Calling a template

    • <xsl:call-template name=“myName”/>

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Xsl variables

    XSL Variables

    • Variables store values for later use

      • In XSL variables are somewhat limited due to the processing relationship to the XML DOM

    • Defining a Variable

      • <xsl:variable name=“myVariable”>value here</xsl:variable>

  • Using a Variable

    • <xsl:value-of select=“$myVariable”/>

  • INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Xsl sample stylesheet1

    XSL – Sample Stylesheet

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

    <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">

    <xsl:template match="/rss">

    <html>

    <body>

    <xsl:for-each select="./channel/item">

    <xsl:value-of select="title"/><br/>

    </xsl:for-each>

    </body>

    </html>

    </xsl:template>

    </xsl:stylesheet>


    Xpath

    XPath

    • A DOM-style syntax that allows us to access elements in an XML file

    • Examples

      • /dublinCore/title

        • Access the title of a DC record

    • [email protected]

      • Access an attribute of the subject element

  • /dublinCore/


  • Xpath 2

    Xpath (2)

    • Xpath functions

      • Contains (//item/title, ‘England’)

      • substring-before(string1, string2), substring-after(string1, string2)

    • Xpath selectors

      • //elementname – finds an element anywhere in the DOM

      • ./ - from the current context

      • / - from the root context

      • * - wildcard match


    Xsl sample stylesheet2

    XSL – Sample Stylesheet

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

    <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0"

    xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">

    <xsl:output method="html"/>

    <xsl:template match="/dc">

    <html>

    <head>

    <title>Sample XML File</title>

    </head>

    <body>

    <xsl:for-each select="*">

    <p><b><xsl:value-of select="name(.)"/>: </b><xsl:text> </xsl:text><xsl:value-of select="./text()"/></p>

    </xsl:for-each>

    </body>

    </html>

    </xsl:template>

    </xsl:stylesheet>

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Class exercise

    Class Exercise

    • Goal

      • To create an XSL file which displays the contents of an RSS file in HTML

    • Materials

      • Sample RSS file & Schema in blackboard (Course Documents >> Presentations and class documents RSS file & RSS Schema links

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


    Next week

    Next Week

    • Guest speaker

    • Talk more about Classification/Categorization

    • Look at other systems & uses

      • Barbara H. Kwasnik. 1999. The role of classification in knowledge representation and discovery.

      • Olson. 2001. Sameness and difference: A cultural foundation of classification.45, -

      • Shirkey. 2006. Ontology is overrated: Categories, links, and tags

    INLS 520 – Fall 2007

    Erik Mitchell


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