Managing engineering and technology sixth edition morse and babcock
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Managing Engineering and Technology Sixth Edition Morse and Babcock. Managing Engineering and Technology Sixth Edition Morse and Babcock. Historical Development of Engineering Management Chapter 2. Chapter Objectives. Describe the origins of engineering management

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Managing Engineering and Technology Sixth EditionMorse and Babcock


Managing Engineering and TechnologySixth EditionMorse and Babcock

Historical Development of Engineering Management

Chapter 2


Chapter Objectives

  • Describe the origins of engineering management

  • Identify the different basic management philosophies

  • Discuss the future issues that will affect the continued development of engineering management


Ancient – Egyptians

  • 4000 – 1600 B.C.

  • Used managerial principles

  • Built pyramids

  • Used job descriptions


Ancient – Military

  • 300 B.C.

  • CyrusUse of staffRecognized use of order and division of work

  • Alexander the GreatDistinction between line and staffUsed discipline and delegation


Ancient – Romans

  • 284 B.C.

  • Estate and farm management

  • Emphasis on personnel selection and placement

  • Known for building roads, bridges, and water management


Medieval Period

  • Four centuries of Dark Ages

  • No books on management written


Origins – Arsenal of Venice

  • Early 1400s

  • Manufacturing

  • Numbering of inventory parts

  • Standardization of parts

  • Assembly line


Spinning Jenny

Water Frame

Mill

Power Loom

Power Loom

Chlorine Bleach

Steam Engine

Screw-cutting Lathe

Industrial Revolution1750 – 1800


Industrial RevolutionProblems of the Factory System

  • Recruiting/Training Workers

  • Explosive Growth in Mill Towns

  • Supervisors, No Background

  • Upper Management, Sons or Relatives


Management Philosophies

  • Scientific

  • Administrative

  • Behavioral


Scientific Management

Frederic W. Taylor: (1856–1915)Father of Scientific Management

  • Time and Motion Studies

  • Believed in selecting, training, teaching, and developing workers


Scientific Management

Frank B. Gilbreth: (1868–1924) Devised a system for classifying hand motions into 17 basic divisions Therbligs

Lillian Moller Gilbreth: (1878–1972) First Lady of Management


Scientific Management

  • Replaced old rule of thumb

  • Believed in selecting, training, teach and developing workers

  • Time Study

  • Standards planning


Administrative Management

  • Henri Fayol

  • Max Weber


Henri Fayol 1841–1925

  • Engineer

  • Developed 14 “General Principles of Administration”

  • Divided management activities into five divisions


Fayol

  • Planning

  • Organizing

  • Command

  • Coordination

  • Control


AdministrativeFunctions of Managers

  • Planning

  • Organizing

  • Staffing (included in organizing)

  • Leading

  • Controlling


Comparison:Fayol and Taylor

  • Both referenced functional specializationFayol – principles of managementTaylor – secure efficiencies

  • Both emphasized “one best way”


Administrative Management

  • Max Weber (1864–1920): Major influence in a classical organizational theory

    • Division of labor

    • Hierarchy of authority

    • Employment based on expertise

    • Inflexible

    • Rigid

    • Impersonal


Behavioral Management

  • Hawthorne Studies

  • Abilene Paradox

  • Maslow


Behavioral Management: Hawthorne Studies – 30s

  • Original intent was find the level of illumination that made the work of female coil winders, relay assemblers, and small parts inspectors more efficient.

  • Conclusion – persons singled out for special attention perform as expected


Behavioral Management: Abilene Paradox

Failing to manage agreement effectively


Behavioral Management: Maslow – 60s

  • Hierarchical theory of human needsBiological / Physiological NeedsSecurity / Safety NeedsSocial NeedsEgo NeedsSelf-actualization Fulfillment


Contemporary Management Issues: Challenges

  • Quality and Productivity

  • Customer Focus

  • Information Technology

  • Project Management

  • Globalization

  • Management Theory and Leadership


Peter Drucker

Peter Senge

Steven Covey

Tom Peters

Scott Adams

Michael Porter

Jim Collins

Thomas Friedman

Contemporary Management Applied Perspectives


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