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KINGDOM, KING AND AN EARLY REPUBLIC. Done by : ANNATH ROSHNI TGT (SST). RAJA . SOME OF THE RAJAS WHERE CHOSEN BY THE JANA. SOME WHERE RECOGNISED AS RAJA BY PERFORMING ASHWAMEDHA. ASHWAMEDHA.

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KINGDOM, KING AND AN EARLY REPUBLIC

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Kingdom king and an early republic

KINGDOM, KING

AND AN EARLY REPUBLIC

Done by : ANNATH ROSHNI

TGT (SST)


Kingdom king and an early republic

RAJA

SOME OF THE RAJAS WHERE CHOSEN BY THE JANA.

SOME WHERE RECOGNISED AS RAJA BY PERFORMING ASHWAMEDHA


Kingdom king and an early republic

ASHWAMEDHA

IT WAS ONE OF THE RITUAL PERFOMED BY THE RAJAS IN WHICH A HORSE WAS LET LOOSE TO WANDER FREELY AND WAS GUARDED BY RAJAS MEN.

IF THE HORSE WANDERED INTO THE KINGDOM OF OTHER RAJAS AND THEY STOPPED IT, THEY HAD TO FIGHT .

IF THEY ALLOWED THE HORSE TO PASS THEY ACCEPTED THE POWER OF THE RAJA.


Kingdom king and an early republic

VARNAS


Kingdom king and an early republic

THERE ARE FOUR VARNAS

BRAHMINS

TO STUDY VEDAS AND PERFORM SACRIFICES.

KSHATRIYAS

RULERS WHO FOUGHT BATTLES AND PROTECTED PEOPLE

VAISHYAS

FARMERS,TRADERS AND HERDERS

SHUDRAS

WERE TO SERVE OTHER THREE GROUPS


Kingdom king and an early republic

JANAPADAS

The rajas who performed these big sacrifices were now recognized as being rajas of janapadas rather than janas. The word janapada literally means the land where the jana set its foot, and settled down . Archaeologists have excavated a number of settlements in these janapadas, such as Purana Qila in Delhi, Hastinapur near Meerut, and Atranjikhera , near Etah (the last two are in Uttar Pradesh). They found that people lived in huts, and kept cattle as well as other animals. They also grew a variety of crops — rice, wheat, barley, pulses, sugarcane, sesame and mustard.


Kingdom king and an early republic

MAHAJANAPADAS

About 2500 years ago, some janapadas became more important than others, and were known as mahajanapadas. Most mahajanapadas had a capital city, many of these were fortified. This means that huge walls of wood, brick or stone were built around them. Forts were probably built because people were afraid of attacks from other kings and needed protection. It is also likely that some rulers wanted to show how rich and powerful they were by building really large, tall and impressive walls around their cities. Also in this way, the land and the people living inside the fortified area could be controlled more easily by the king. Thousands, if not lakhs of bricks or stone had to be prepared. This in turn meant enormous labour, provided, possibly, by thousands of men, women and children.


Kingdom king and an early republic

Painted grey Ware earthen pot designed

with simple lines and geometrical patterns


Kingdom king and an early republic

The fortification wall at Jaipur


Kingdom king and an early republic

TAXES

Taxes on crops were the most important. This was because most people were farmers. Usually, the tax was fixed at 1/6th of what was produced. This was known as Bhaga

There were taxes on craftspersons as well. These could have been in the form of labour.

Herders were also expected to pay taxes in the form of animals and animal produces.


Kingdom king and an early republic

CHANGES IN AGRICULTURE

Major changes in agricultural are

The growing use of iron plough shares . Heavy and clayey soil could be turned into good land and more grain could be produced.

People began transplanting paddy .This led to increased production, as many plants survived.Slave men ,women and landless agricultural labourers had to do this work.


Kingdom king and an early republic

(A) MAGADHA

Magadha Empire lasted from 684 B.C - 320 B.C in India. The two great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata mention the Magadha Empire. It is said that the Shishunaga dynasty founded the Magadha Empire. Some of the greatest empires and religions of India originated here. The Gupta Empire and Mauryan Empire started here. The great religions, Buddhism and Jainism were founded in Magadha empire.


Kingdom king and an early republic

(A) MAGADHA

Magadha Empire gained much power and importance during the rule of King Bimbisara and his son and successor Ajatshatru. Bimbisara is said to have been murdered by his son Ajatshatru. The Magadha Empire in India extended in the modern day Bihar and Patna and some parts of Bengal. Magadha Empire was a part of the 16 Mahajanapadas. The empire extended up to River Ganges and the kingdoms of Kosala and Kashi were annexed. The places that came under the Magadha Empire were mostly republican in nature and the administration was divided into judicial, executive and military functions.


Kingdom king and an early republic

(A) MAGADHA


Kingdom king and an early republic

(B) VAJJI / VRIJJI

Vrijji, Pali Vajji,  confederacy of the Licchavis and neighbouring peoples in Bihar, India, that existed from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC. Its capital was at Vaishali(Bihar). It was governed as an aristocratic republic. Gautama Buddha is said to have modeled the organizational structure of the Buddhist monastic order, sangha, on the government of the Vrijji. In the 4th century BC the marriage of Chandragupta to a Licchavi princess helped establish the Mauryan dynasty.


Kingdom king and an early republic

(B) VAJJI / VRIJJI

Vajji was under a different form of government, known as gana or sangha.GANA is used for a group that has many members whereas a SANGHA means organisation or association. In a gana or a sangha thousands of rulers were there, each called a RAJA. These rajas discussed matters together.


Kingdom king and an early republic

EXERCISES

State whether true or false:

  • Rajas who let the ashvamedha horse pass through their lands were invited to the sacrifices. Ans : True

  • The charioteer sprinkled sacred water on the king.

  • Ans : False

  • Archaeologist have found palaces in the settlements of the janapadas. Ans : False

  • Pots to store grain were made out of Painted Grey ware.

  • Ans : False

  • Many cities in Mahajanapadas were fortified. Ans : True


Kingdom king and an early republic

EXERCISES

WHY DID THE RAJAS OF MAHAJANAPADAS BUILD FORTS?

An:

To protect their people from attacks from other kings. Another reason for building of forts might be the desire to show how rich and powerful the raja was.


Kingdom king and an early republic

EXERCISES

MCQ

1.Which mines were found in Magadha empire?

Copper mines

Iron ore mines

Manganese mines

All the above

2. Soldiers were paid ___________and maintained by the king throughout the year.

Silver coins

 In the form of land

 Regular salaries

None of the above


Kingdom king and an early republic

EXERCISES

MCQ

3.The ruler Alexander was from________

Russia

Europe

Afghanistan

Italy

4. Forests in the Magadha empire provided wood for building-

Houses

Carts

Chariots

All the above


Kingdom king and an early republic

EXERCISES

MCQ

5. Most Mahajanapadas had a _______

Army

Raja

Fort

Capital city

6. Bimbisara and Ajatasattu were important rulers of-

Vrijji

Magadha

Gupta

None of the above


Kingdom king and an early republic

THANK YOU


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