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Agenda – Wednesday, February 19 th. Reading Quiz #5 – Learning Classical Conditioning Notes Example Homework: NONE Unit Test #2 – Returned TOMORROW. Learning Unit. Acquiring new information Modifying or reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences

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agenda wednesday february 19 th
Agenda – Wednesday, February 19th
  • Reading Quiz #5 – Learning
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Notes
    • Example
  • Homework: NONE
    • Unit Test #2 – Returned TOMORROW
learning unit
Learning Unit
  • Acquiring new information
  • Modifying or reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences
  • Learning does not happen all at once
    • Ideas build upon one another
classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning



classical conditioning1
Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditioned Stimulus: anything that generates an automatic response
  • Unconditioned Response: The automatic response to the US
    • Tasty food  Salivate
    • Loud Noise  Startled
    • Puff of air in the eye  Twitch
    • Being dumped  Sadness
    • Stomach Flu  Nausea
    • Alluring Image  Sexual Arousal
classical conditioning2
Classical Conditioning
  • Neutral Stimulus: Anything to which you DON’T already have a natural reaction to
    • Doctor’s Office
    • A color
    • Computer sound
    • Spray bottle
    • Sound of a bell
    • Your friend’s house
    • A building
classical conditioning3
Classical Conditioning

Acquisition: Repeated pairing of NS & UCS



classical conditioning4
Classical Conditioning

Generalization: When other stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus cause a conditioned response

Discrimination: The ability to differentiate between CS and similar stimuli

classical conditioning5
Classical Conditioning
  • Extinction: Eliminating a Conditioned Response
    • caused by UCS by REPEATEDLY not following CS
    • The NS loses its predictive power!
classical conditioning6
Classical Conditioning
  • Spontaneous Recovery: Re-emergence of an extinct CR after a period of time
    • CR will be much weaker, but still present
example invisible fences
Example: Invisible Fences

Some dog owners prefer to get an invisible fence (a fence that provides a shock when dogs with shock collars cross a wire in the ground) because their neighborhood does not allow certain fences.

When the dog is about 6 inches away from the wire, it hears a loud tone. If the dog continues walking after hearing the tone, it will be shocked.

before the fence
Before the fence…

Unconditioned Stimulus: _______________

Unconditioned Response: ______________

Neutral Stimulus: ______________________


Conditioned Stimulus: _________________

Conditioned Response: ________________



Spontaneous Recovery:



agenda thursday february 20 th
Agenda – Thursday, February 20th

Return and review Exam #2

Classical Conditioning class example

If time: Higher-order Classical Conditioning

Homework: NONE

exam 2
Exam #2
  • Exam #1 Mean Score (with 2 point curve)
    • 5th hour: 21.95/27
    • 7th hour: 21.23/27
  • Exam #2 Mean Score (with 4 point curve)
    • 5th hour: 25.0/33
    • 7th hour: 25.45/33
agenda friday february 21 st
Agenda – Friday, February 21st
  • Higher-Order Classical Conditioning
    • Notes
    • “The Office” example
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Homework: Reading Guide #6 + reading quiz  TUESDAY
higher order conditioning
Higher-Order Conditioning
  • Using a CS as UCS to condition a new response
  • It’s like the “Inception” of conditioning
  • First-Order:
    • UCS + NS = UR
    • NR  CS
    • CS = CR
higher order conditioning1
Higher-Order Conditioning
  • Higher-Order
    • CS  CR
    • CS = UCS
    • UCS (old CS) + (NEW) NS  UCR
    • Eventually…NS becomes CS
    • CS  CR
operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning


You learn consequences that follow your behavior (GOOD OR BAD)

How do CRUSH CARDS function as operant conditioning?

operant conditioning1
Operant Conditioning

Shaping: rewarding successive behaviors to encourage more complex behaviors

operant conditioning2
Operant Conditioning

How does gambling function as both reinforcement and punishment?


Reinforcement: Increases the frequency of behavior

Punishment: Decreases the frequency of behavior

operant conditioning3
Operant Conditioning

Is receiving a speeding ticket positive or negative?

Positive: Adding something

Negative: Taking away something

agenda monday february 24 th
Agenda – Monday, February 24th
  • Important people (yellow sheet)
  • Classical vs. Operant conditioning examples worksheet
  • Reinforcement Schedules
  • Practice FRQ (if time)
  • Homework:
    • Reading Guide #6 due tomorrow
    • Reading Quiz #6 tomorrow
important people
Important People

Ivan Pavlov

B.F. Skinner

John B. Watson

Edward Thorndike

Albert Bandura

fixed ratio
Fixed Ratio
  • Response happens after the behavior occurs a specific amount of times
  • Examples:
    • Push level five times: Receive a food pellet
    • Buy four coffees: Get one free
    • Read five books: Get a free pizza
    • Clean three rooms: Get a 15 minutes break
fixed interval
Fixed Interval
  • Response happens after a set amount of time
  • Examples:
    • Pressing a lever: Food pellet released every 10 minutes
    • Studying: Final exam given every end of semester
    • Being paid every two weeks for working a job
    • Reading a textbook:” Teacher gives quiz every Tuesday
variable ratio
Variable Ratio
  • Response happen after the behavior occurs an unpredictable amount of times
  • Example:
    • Pressing a level: Unknown how many times it takes to release pellet
    • Buying scratch off lottery tickets: Unknown how many you need to win
    • Using slot machines: Unknown how many times it takes to pay out
    • Calling for donations: Unknown how many calls you need to make to get a donation
variable interval
Variable Interval
  • Response happens after an unpredictable amount of time
  • Examples:
    • Pressing a lever: You don’t know when the pellet will be released
    • Studying: You don’t know when a pop quiz will happen
    • Fishing: You can go very long or short periods of time without catching fish
    • Drug Use: Random drug tests by an employer

Latent Learning: Even without reinforcement and punishment schedules, you are still learning (create a cognitive map)

Example 

Other examples?


Intrinsic Motivation: The inner desire to perform a behavior effectively for the sake of it

Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to behave a certain way to receive external rewards or avoid threatened punishment

intrinsic or extrinsic
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?
  • “I remember a daily ritual that we had: I would call Pop at work to ask if I could practice with him. He would always pause a second or two, keeping me in suspense, but he’d always say yes…In his own way, he was teaching me initiative. You see, he never pushed me to play.”
    • -Tiger Woods

(TED Talk)