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Agenda – Wednesday, February 19 th. Reading Quiz #5 – Learning Classical Conditioning Notes Example Homework: NONE Unit Test #2 – Returned TOMORROW. Learning Unit. Acquiring new information Modifying or reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences

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Agenda wednesday february 19 th
Agenda – Wednesday, February 19th

  • Reading Quiz #5 – Learning

  • Classical Conditioning

    • Notes

    • Example

  • Homework: NONE

    • Unit Test #2 – Returned TOMORROW


Learning unit
Learning Unit

  • Acquiring new information

  • Modifying or reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences

  • Learning does not happen all at once

    • Ideas build upon one another

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57e4t-fhXDs


Classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning

IT IS NOT VOLUNTARY!!

IT HAPPENS REFLEXIVELY!!!


Classical conditioning1
Classical Conditioning

  • Unconditioned Stimulus: anything that generates an automatic response

  • Unconditioned Response: The automatic response to the US

    • Tasty food  Salivate

    • Loud Noise  Startled

    • Puff of air in the eye  Twitch

    • Being dumped  Sadness

    • Stomach Flu  Nausea

    • Alluring Image  Sexual Arousal


Classical conditioning2
Classical Conditioning

  • Neutral Stimulus: Anything to which you DON’T already have a natural reaction to

    • Doctor’s Office

    • A color

    • Computer sound

    • Spray bottle

    • Sound of a bell

    • Your friend’s house

    • A building


Classical conditioning3
Classical Conditioning

Acquisition: Repeated pairing of NS & UCS

NS + UCS  UR

CS  CR


Classical conditioning4
Classical Conditioning

Generalization: When other stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus cause a conditioned response

Discrimination: The ability to differentiate between CS and similar stimuli


Classical conditioning5
Classical Conditioning

  • Extinction: Eliminating a Conditioned Response

    • caused by UCS by REPEATEDLY not following CS

    • The NS loses its predictive power!


Classical conditioning6
Classical Conditioning

  • Spontaneous Recovery: Re-emergence of an extinct CR after a period of time

    • CR will be much weaker, but still present


Example invisible fences
Example: Invisible Fences

Some dog owners prefer to get an invisible fence (a fence that provides a shock when dogs with shock collars cross a wire in the ground) because their neighborhood does not allow certain fences.

When the dog is about 6 inches away from the wire, it hears a loud tone. If the dog continues walking after hearing the tone, it will be shocked.


Before the fence
Before the fence…

Unconditioned Stimulus: _______________

Unconditioned Response: ______________

Neutral Stimulus: ______________________


Conditioned Stimulus: _________________

Conditioned Response: ________________


Extinction:

Spontaneous Recovery:

Generalization:

Discrimination:


Agenda thursday february 20 th
Agenda – Thursday, February 20th

Return and review Exam #2

Classical Conditioning class example

If time: Higher-order Classical Conditioning

Homework: NONE


Exam 2
Exam #2

  • Exam #1 Mean Score (with 2 point curve)

    • 5th hour: 21.95/27

    • 7th hour: 21.23/27

  • Exam #2 Mean Score (with 4 point curve)

    • 5th hour: 25.0/33

    • 7th hour: 25.45/33


Agenda friday february 21 st
Agenda – Friday, February 21st

  • Higher-Order Classical Conditioning

    • Notes

    • “The Office” example

  • Operant Conditioning

  • Homework: Reading Guide #6 + reading quiz  TUESDAY


Higher order conditioning
Higher-Order Conditioning

  • Using a CS as UCS to condition a new response

  • It’s like the “Inception” of conditioning

  • First-Order:

    • UCS + NS = UR

    • NR  CS

    • CS = CR


Higher order conditioning1
Higher-Order Conditioning

  • Higher-Order

    • CS  CR

    • CS = UCS

    • UCS (old CS) + (NEW) NS  UCR

    • Eventually…NS becomes CS

    • CS  CR



Operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning

IT IS VOLUNTARY!!

You learn consequences that follow your behavior (GOOD OR BAD)

How do CRUSH CARDS function as operant conditioning?


Operant conditioning1
Operant Conditioning

Shaping: rewarding successive behaviors to encourage more complex behaviors


Operant conditioning2
Operant Conditioning

How does gambling function as both reinforcement and punishment?

MUST FOLLOW A BEHAVIOR!

Reinforcement: Increases the frequency of behavior

Punishment: Decreases the frequency of behavior


Operant conditioning3
Operant Conditioning

Is receiving a speeding ticket positive or negative?

Positive: Adding something

Negative: Taking away something


Agenda monday february 24 th
Agenda – Monday, February 24th

  • Important people (yellow sheet)

  • Classical vs. Operant conditioning examples worksheet

  • Reinforcement Schedules

  • Practice FRQ (if time)

  • Homework:

    • Reading Guide #6 due tomorrow

    • Reading Quiz #6 tomorrow


Important people
Important People

Ivan Pavlov

B.F. Skinner

John B. Watson

Edward Thorndike

Albert Bandura



Fixed ratio
Fixed Ratio

  • Response happens after the behavior occurs a specific amount of times

  • Examples:

    • Push level five times: Receive a food pellet

    • Buy four coffees: Get one free

    • Read five books: Get a free pizza

    • Clean three rooms: Get a 15 minutes break


Fixed interval
Fixed Interval

  • Response happens after a set amount of time

  • Examples:

    • Pressing a lever: Food pellet released every 10 minutes

    • Studying: Final exam given every end of semester

    • Being paid every two weeks for working a job

    • Reading a textbook:” Teacher gives quiz every Tuesday


Variable ratio
Variable Ratio

  • Response happen after the behavior occurs an unpredictable amount of times

  • Example:

    • Pressing a level: Unknown how many times it takes to release pellet

    • Buying scratch off lottery tickets: Unknown how many you need to win

    • Using slot machines: Unknown how many times it takes to pay out

    • Calling for donations: Unknown how many calls you need to make to get a donation


Variable interval
Variable Interval

  • Response happens after an unpredictable amount of time

  • Examples:

    • Pressing a lever: You don’t know when the pellet will be released

    • Studying: You don’t know when a pop quiz will happen

    • Fishing: You can go very long or short periods of time without catching fish

    • Drug Use: Random drug tests by an employer


Cognition
Cognition

Latent Learning: Even without reinforcement and punishment schedules, you are still learning (create a cognitive map)

Example 

Other examples?


Cognition1
Cognition

Intrinsic Motivation: The inner desire to perform a behavior effectively for the sake of it

Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to behave a certain way to receive external rewards or avoid threatened punishment


Intrinsic or extrinsic
Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

  • “I remember a daily ritual that we had: I would call Pop at work to ask if I could practice with him. He would always pause a second or two, keeping me in suspense, but he’d always say yes…In his own way, he was teaching me initiative. You see, he never pushed me to play.”

    • -Tiger Woods


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74x0Hacr1-w

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8nuI2RrJTfA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6LEcM0E0io

(TED Talk)


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