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Lecture #2. Methods used for studying brain development. Food for thought. How can you get inside someone’s brain without really getting “inside” their brain? What would you do to study brain development? What can we learn about brain from studying behavior (and vice versa)? . Outline.

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Lecture #2

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Lecture #2

Methods used for studying brain development


Food for thought

  • How can you get inside someone’s brain without really getting “inside” their brain?

  • What would you do to study brain development?

  • What can we learn about brain from studying behavior (and vice versa)?


Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies


Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG


Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG

    • ERP


Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG

    • ERP

    • Imaging Studies


Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG

    • ERP

    • Imaging Studies

    • Animal Studies


Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG

    • ERP

    • Imaging Studies

    • Animal Studies

    • Neuropsychological Studies


Outline

  • What’s so great?


Outline

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects


Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)


Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)

      • Hippocampus (memory)


Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)

      • Hippocampus (memory)

      • Visual cortex (blindsight)


Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)

      • Hippocampus (memory)

      • Visual cortex (blindsight)

      • Parietal cortex (attention)


Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)

      • Hippocampus (memory)

      • Visual cortex (blindsight)

      • Parietal cortex (attention)

      • Left hemisphere (language)


Lesion Studies

  • What’s so great?


Lesion Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • Measures “brain waves”


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • Measures “brain waves”

  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • Measures “brain waves”

  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system

    • Can be used as a very low level indicator (is this person alive)


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • Measures “brain waves”

  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system

    • Can be used as a very low level indicator (is this person alive)

    • Can also be used to measure behavior

      • Depression


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands

      • Power


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands

      • Power

      • Activation


Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands

      • Power

      • Activation

      • Activation in a particular frequency range


EEG

  • What’s so great?


EEG

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:


Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.


Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  • How do you measure them?


Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  • How do you measure them?

    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity


Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  • How do you measure them?

    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity

    • Activity is recorded in response to a specific discrete event.


Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  • How do you measure them?

    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity

    • Activity is recorded in response to a specific discrete event.

    • Averaging over enough trials gets rid of the “noise” of the background EEG.


ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?


ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component


ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component

      • PSW


ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component

      • PSW

      • P300


ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component

      • PSW

      • P300

      • Sensory Components


ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?


ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component

      • PSW

      • P300

      • Sensory Components

  • What can you learn from them?

    • Examples

      • Language and early phonological development


ERP

  • What’s so great?


ERP

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


Imaging

  • CAT Scans


Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure


Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure

  • PET Scans


Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure

  • PET Scans

    • Good measure of blood flow in brain


Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure

  • PET Scans

    • Good measure of blood flow in brain

    • Poor resolution


Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure

  • PET Scans

    • Good measure of blood flow in brain

    • Poor resolution

    • Involves radiation


Imaging (continued)

  • MRI


Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain


Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin


Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin

  • fMRI


Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin

  • fMRI

    • Excellent resolution


Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin

  • fMRI

    • Excellent resolution

    • Provides image of blood flow in the brain


Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin

  • fMRI

    • Excellent resolution

    • Provides image of blood flow in the brain

    • Example - Working Memory


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

    • CAT Scan


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan

    • MRI


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan

    • MRI

    • fMRI


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?

    • CAT Scan


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan

    • MRI


Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan

    • MRI

    • fMRI


Animal Studies

  • You can look directly at brain with animals

    • Whatever you want to look at

    • Do specific lesions


Animal Studies

  • What’s so great?


Animal Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


Neuropsychology

  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies


Neuropsychology

  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies

  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies


Neuropsychology

  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies

  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies

  • You can measure the function of the brain indirectly


Neuropsychology

  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies

  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies

  • You can measure the function of the brain indirectly

    • Example: Autism


Neuropsychological Studies

  • What’s so great?


Neuropsychological Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


All of the above?

  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?


All of the above?

  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?

    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures


All of the above?

  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?

    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures

    • What if an imaging study shows something different than lesion studies or animal studies always have?


All of the above?

  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?

    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures

    • What if an imaging study shows something different than lesion studies or animal studies always have?

    • Complementary resolution advantages


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