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Lecture #2. Methods used for studying brain development. Food for thought. How can you get inside someone’s brain without really getting “inside” their brain? What would you do to study brain development? What can we learn about brain from studying behavior (and vice versa)? . Outline .

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Lecture #2

Methods used for studying brain development


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Food for thought

  • How can you get inside someone’s brain without really getting “inside” their brain?

  • What would you do to study brain development?

  • What can we learn about brain from studying behavior (and vice versa)?


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Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies


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Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG


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Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG

    • ERP


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Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG

    • ERP

    • Imaging Studies


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Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG

    • ERP

    • Imaging Studies

    • Animal Studies


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Outline

  • Methods used to measure brain development

    • Lesion studies

    • EEG

    • ERP

    • Imaging Studies

    • Animal Studies

    • Neuropsychological Studies


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Outline

  • What’s so great?


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Outline

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


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Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects


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Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)


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Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)

      • Hippocampus (memory)


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Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)

      • Hippocampus (memory)

      • Visual cortex (blindsight)


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Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)

      • Hippocampus (memory)

      • Visual cortex (blindsight)

      • Parietal cortex (attention)


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Lesion Studies

  • Damage to a particular part of the brain can result in specific behavioral effects

    • Examples

      • Amygdala (emotion)

      • Hippocampus (memory)

      • Visual cortex (blindsight)

      • Parietal cortex (attention)

      • Left hemisphere (language)


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Lesion Studies

  • What’s so great?


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Lesion Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • Measures “brain waves”


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • Measures “brain waves”

  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • Measures “brain waves”

  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system

    • Can be used as a very low level indicator (is this person alive)


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • Measures “brain waves”

  • Gross measure of integrity of the brain as a system

    • Can be used as a very low level indicator (is this person alive)

    • Can also be used to measure behavior

      • Depression


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands

      • Power


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands

      • Power

      • Activation


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Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • How does it work?

    • Brains produce electricity

      • Neurons do their business basically by acting like wires

    • Electrodes placed on scalp record brain electrical activity

    • Measures include the amount of activity in particular frequency bands

      • Power

      • Activation

      • Activation in a particular frequency range


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EEG

  • What’s so great?


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EEG

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?



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Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.


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Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  • How do you measure them?


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Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  • How do you measure them?

    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity


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Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  • How do you measure them?

    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity

    • Activity is recorded in response to a specific discrete event.


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Event – related Potentials (ERP)

  • Definition:

    • Brain electrical activity that comes from simultaneous firing of synapses, and is related to a specific event.

  • How do you measure them?

    • Electrodes placed on the scalp record brain activity

    • Activity is recorded in response to a specific discrete event.

    • Averaging over enough trials gets rid of the “noise” of the background EEG.


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ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?


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ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component


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ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component

      • PSW


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ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component

      • PSW

      • P300


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ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component

      • PSW

      • P300

      • Sensory Components


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ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?


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ERP (continued)

  • What do they look like?

    • Components seen in infants

      • Nc Component

      • PSW

      • P300

      • Sensory Components

  • What can you learn from them?

    • Examples

      • Language and early phonological development


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ERP

  • What’s so great?


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ERP

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


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Imaging

  • CAT Scans


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Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure


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Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure

  • PET Scans


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Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure

  • PET Scans

    • Good measure of blood flow in brain


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Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure

  • PET Scans

    • Good measure of blood flow in brain

    • Poor resolution


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Imaging

  • CAT Scans

    • Useful for describing overall brain structure

  • PET Scans

    • Good measure of blood flow in brain

    • Poor resolution

    • Involves radiation



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Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain


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Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin


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Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin

  • fMRI


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Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin

  • fMRI

    • Excellent resolution


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Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin

  • fMRI

    • Excellent resolution

    • Provides image of blood flow in the brain


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Imaging (continued)

  • MRI

    • Excellent resolution for structure of the brain

    • Example - Myelin

  • fMRI

    • Excellent resolution

    • Provides image of blood flow in the brain

    • Example - Working Memory


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

    • CAT Scan


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan

    • MRI


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan

    • MRI

    • fMRI


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?

    • CAT Scan


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan

    • MRI


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Imaging Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?

    • CAT Scan

    • PET Scan

    • MRI

    • fMRI


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Animal Studies

  • You can look directly at brain with animals

    • Whatever you want to look at

    • Do specific lesions


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Animal Studies

  • What’s so great?


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Animal Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


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Neuropsychology

  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies


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Neuropsychology

  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies

  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies


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Neuropsychology

  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies

  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies

  • You can measure the function of the brain indirectly


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Neuropsychology

  • Behavioral method derived from lesion and animal studies

  • These behaviors are associated with parts of the brain from lesion, animal, or imaging studies

  • You can measure the function of the brain indirectly

    • Example: Autism


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Neuropsychological Studies

  • What’s so great?


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Neuropsychological Studies

  • What’s so great?

  • What’s the problem?


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All of the above?

  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?


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All of the above?

  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?

    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures


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All of the above?

  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?

    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures

    • What if an imaging study shows something different than lesion studies or animal studies always have?


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All of the above?

  • There are advantages to combining these methods. What might these be?

    • Look at behavior to determine what you’re really measuring – converging measures

    • What if an imaging study shows something different than lesion studies or animal studies always have?

    • Complementary resolution advantages



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