Cross border communication cooperation and the entrepreneurial personality
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Cross Border Communication / Cooperation and The Entrepreneurial Personality. El Paso – Ciudad Ju árez. COMMON SOURCES OF EXPLANATIONS FOR POLITICAL PHENOMENA. Three level explanations and combinations Kenneth Waltz, Man, the State and War Systemic explanations: The First Image

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Cross Border Communication / Cooperation and The Entrepreneurial Personality

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Cross border communication cooperation and the entrepreneurial personality

Cross Border Communication / Cooperation andThe Entrepreneurial Personality

El Paso – Ciudad Juárez


Common sources of explanations for political phenomena

COMMON SOURCES OF EXPLANATIONS FOR POLITICAL PHENOMENA

  • Three level explanations and combinations

    • Kenneth Waltz, Man, the State and War

  • Systemic explanations: The First Image

    • Kenneth Waltz, Theory of International Politics

  • Domestic politics: The Second Image

    • Robert D. Putnam, The Logic of Two Level Games

    • Peter Gourevitch, The Second Image Reversed: The International Sources of Domestic Politics

  • The Individual: The Third Image

    • John Stoessinger, Why Nations go to War


Main argument

MAIN ARGUMENT

  • In environments with poor institutional development, communication and cooperation depend heavily on specific individuals and these wax and wane on the presence or absence, health or illness, willingness or unwillingness, interest or lack of interest, and capacity or lack of capacity (diplomatic or otherwise) of specific individuals

  • The applicable model is “muddling through”

    • Charles E. Lindblom, The Science of “Muddling Through”


Hypotheses

HYPOTHESES

  • The lesser the existence of cross border institutions or bureaucratic mechanisms for interaction, the more cross border communication and cooperation depend on entrepreneurial personalities

  • The absence of entrepreneurial personalities brings about the absence of cross border cooperation and communication in the same proportion to that absence

  • The more cross border communication or cooperation depends on entrepreneurial personalities, the more it is likely to die off when individuals become absent or ill, lose interest or willingness, or reach capacity or competence limitations either personal or political


Some definitions political entrepreneurs

Some Definitions:Political Entrepreneurs

  • someone (usually active in the fields of either politics or business) who founds a new political project, group, or political party

  • a businessman who seeks to gain profit through subsidies, protectionism, government contracts, or other such favorable arrangements with government through political influence.

  • a political actor (not necessarily a politician) who seeks to further his or her own political career and popularity by pursuing the creation of policy that may or may not please the populace.


Some definitions local cross border communication cooperation

Some Definitions:Local Cross Border Communication / Cooperation

  • Local cross Border Communication / Cooperation

    • Cross border communication consists in the establishment of regularized interactions both formal and informal between public officials and bureaucrats with the ability to affect policy

    • Cross border cooperation consists in the establishment of standard operating procedures between two governmental entities across borders


Our case the dependent variable

OUR CASE: the dependent variable

  • El Paso / Ciudad Juárez

    • How developed are the local institutional structures in El Paso / Ciudad Juárez?


Our case the independent variables

OUR CASE: The independent variables

  • El Paso / Ciudad Juárez

    • How much do cross border communication and cooperation at the local level depend on individuals (political entrepreneurs) rather than institutions?


The institutionalized border

The institutionalized border

  • The term Regio comes from the Latin "regere", meaning to draw a line or border. In ancient Rome the "Regio" was used for demarcating an area rather than governing it. It did not correspond to any legislative or governmental institution.

  • Even today Euroregions and other forms of transfrontier co-operation structures do not create a new type of government at transfrontier level. They do not have political powers and their work is limited to the competences of the local and regional authorities which constitute them.

  • Within the limits of the geographical scope of co-operation (the "Regio"), the transfrontier structures are arrangements for co-operation between units of local or regional government across the border in order to promote common interests and enhance the living standards of the border populations.

    • Source: Council of Europe


The non institutionalized border

The non-institutionalized border

  • North America: Poorly and randomly institutionalized

    • Emmanuel Brunet-Jailly, University of VictoriaTony Payan, University of Texas at El PasoGary Sawchuk Policy Research Initiative,“The Emergence of CBRs along the Mexican-US Border and in Europe” (2008)

  • Institutions are functional not on the basis of regularized cross-border bureaucracies but rather on the basis of individuals who choose to use them

  • Most institutions are bilateral not binational, which reinforces the idea of separation rather than unity

    • Sergio Peña, Cross Border Planning on the U.S.-Mexico Border: Bilateral vs. Binational Agencies


Institutional development in el paso ciudad ju rez

Institutional Development in El Paso / Ciudad Juárez

  • El Paso – Ciudad Juárez

    • Local level

      • Low / nearly absent institutional development

      • Absence of regularized cross border communication routines

      • Absence of regularized cooperation mechanisms

      • Loss of autonomy over time / presence of a democratic deficit

    • Absence of institutions at the state level

      • Low / nearly absent institutional development

        • Governors’ Annual Meeting / Larger context with a diluted state level agenda

    • Stronger presence of institutions at the federal level

      • Department of State / Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores

        • U.S.-Mexico Border Transportation Planning

        • International Boundary and Water Commission

        • North American Development Bank / Border Environmental Cooperation Comm.

        • Various Joint Working Groups

      • North American Free Trade Agreement

      • Smart Border: 22 Point Agreement

      • Security and Prosperity Partnership

    • Civil Society institutional agenda


The findings

The Findings

  • Creation of a new discourse

    • The construction of a single community

  • Personal Interest

  • Creativity

  • Willingness to pay a political cost

  • Overcoming obstacles

    • Fear

    • Language

    • Differing electoral terms


The creation of a new discourse

The Creation of a New Discourse

  • Mayor John Cook…proclaimed, Tuesday, March 21, 2006 as the "Benito Juarez Day“…

  • At the request of Mayor Cook, churches in El Paso will include a prayer for Ciudad Juarez…

  • “Today, both Ciudad Juarez and El Paso are moving aggressively forward in our efforts to re-vitalize our downtowns…”

  • Later, Mayor Cook and Senator Shapleigh joined with representatives of Ciudad Juarez 's municipal government to appeal for a united, cross-border front against a reopened smelter…


Personal interest

Personal Interest

  • El Paso Mayor Cook said…people outside the region don't understand the "symbiotic relationship" between border communities dependent on mutual economic, academic and social exchanges…

    • Mayor Cook instituted bimonthly regular meetings between mayors

    • Mayor Cook created the Cross Border Relations Committee

    • Initiative to create the Binational Cross Border Committee

    • Unprecedented number of visits to Ciudad Juárez and continued presence in mutual events

    • Appointment of Dr. Tony Payan to lead the international bridge effort


Creativity an example

Creativity: An example

  • The 31 May 2007 Meeting

    • Federal and State rules: The Open Meetings Act

    • Consultations with the Texas Attorney General

      • The 1 July 2008 City Councils Meeting


Creativity an example1

Creativity: An Example

  • Bi-monthly Mayors’ Meeting

    • Alternating between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez

  • City Councils Meeting

    • 1 July 2008


Creativity an example2

Creativity: An example

  • Communication and Notification Plan

    • Negotiated and signed by the mayors on 25 June 2007

    • Communication / Notification only

    • No integrated operating procedures

    • Legal and liability rules

    • Prejudices: I did not sign up to fight fires in Ciudad Juárez


Willingness to pay a political cost

Willingness to Pay a Political Cost

  • “In the end, our country’s border is not something that divides us but rather something that brings us together. A fence is not the solution. We need to pursue better agreements with Mexico regarding immigration, look at alternate ways to combat the illegal trade of humans and drugs and keep our precious environment safe…”

    • Source: Mayor John Cook on the Border Wall


Overcoming obstacles differing electoral terms

Overcoming Obstacles: Differing electoral terms

  • Fear

    • Phone call regarding the City Council’s reluctance to travel to Ciudad Juárez


Overcoming obstacles differing electoral terms1

Overcoming Obstacles: Differing electoral terms

  • Mayor John F. Cook is not bilingual

    • This has not deterred Mayor Cook from establishing numerous contacts with his counterparts in Ciudad Juárez

    • Mayor Cook does not pretend to speak Spanish nor does he pronounce “token” words either

    • The use of translators has become very common


Overcoming obstacles differing electoral terms2

Overcoming Obstacles: Differing electoral terms

  • Mayor John Cook (El Paso)

    • 2005-2008

  • Mayor Héctor Murguía (Ciudad Juárez)

    • 2004-2007

  • Mayor José Reyes Ferriz (Ciudad Juárez)

    • 2007-2010


What if mayor cook were missing

What if Mayor Cook were missing?

  • Would new mayors pursue the same “integrative goals”?

    • History shows that not everyone is willing to recognize the high degree of local interdependence but are willing to ignore it

    • Other mayors have not pursued relationships this close, which reinforces that much of the cross-border contacts remain the initiative of Mayor Cook

    • Mistake: institutionalized contacts remain elusive because the constraints are considerable for local governments


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