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KHILAFAT MOVEMENT. Presentation by Muhammad Aleemuddin. Introduction. Since the 16 th century the Turkish Khalifa was considered by many Muslims to be Caliph. The Turkish Empire (also known as The Ottoman Empire ) included Makkah, Madinah, and Jerusalem. The Ottoman Empire Collapsed.

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Khilafat movement




Muhammad Aleemuddin



  • Since the 16th century the Turkish Khalifa was considered by many Muslims to be Caliph.

  • The Turkish Empire (also known as The Ottoman Empire) included Makkah, Madinah, and Jerusalem.

The ottoman empire collapsed

The Ottoman Empire Collapsed

  • In 1914 the Ottomans joined the First World War in support of the Central Powers

  • After defeat the Ottoman Empire was divided between various countries


    Syria, IraqFrance

    Cyprus, EgyptBritain

    PalestineInternational Rule

Beginning of the khilafat movement

Beginning of the Khilafat Movement

  • Began in 1919

  • Leaders: Maulana Muhammad Ali, Maulana Shaukat Ali, and Abul Kalam Azad

Khilafat movement


  • to give power back to the Caliph

  • to gain independence for India

An attempt


  • The Leaders went to London to protest about European policy towards Islam

  • They explained the Muslim feelings

  • The British ignored them

  • Maulana Muhammad Ali announced that the British should no longer be obeyed

Gandhi joined the khilafat movement

Gandhi joined the Khilafat Movement

  • Maulana Muhammad Ali invited Gandhi to the Khilafat meetings

  • Gandhi and Annie Besant attended a meeting in 1920 at Amritsar

  • Gandhi was elected the only non-Muslim member of the Executive Committee

Khilafat movement satyagraha

Khilafat Movement & Satyagraha

Taking Gandhi’s advice, the Khilafat Committee began Satyagraha in August 1920. People avoided everything British and:

  • would not buy or sell British goods

  • refused to pay taxes

  • went on strike

  • refused to join the army

  • students left British educational institutions

Problems for the khilafat movement

Problems for the Khilafat Movement

  • The Hijrat to Afghanistan

  • The Moplah Rebellion

  • Violence at Chauri Chaura

  • The Collapse of the Khilafat Movement

The hijrat to afghanistan

The Hijrat to Afghanistan

  • Some Muslims believed that the British had been made India a land unfit for Muslims

  • In 1920 about 18,000 Muslim peasants migrated to Afghanistan

  • They sold their lands and possessions

  • Afghanistan refused to accept them

  • Many died on the way back

The moplah rebellion

The Moplah Rebellion

  • Moplahs were the Muslims, in South India, who claimed to be descended from Arab settlers

  • They rebelled in 1921 and declared a Khilafat kingdom

  • Several Europeans were killed, Hindus were attacked and their houses and temples were destroyed

  • The British blamed this rebellion on the Khilafat Movement

Violence at chauri chaura

Violence at Chauri Chaura

  • It was a remote village in east India

  • In 1922 an angry crowd burnt 22 police officers alive in their police station

  • Gandhi himself called off the Satyagraha Movement saying that he had made a “Himalayan blunder”

  • He was arrested and imprisoned for two years

The collapse of the khilafat movement

The Collapse of the Khilafat Movement

  • Gandhi’s arrest weakened the Khilafat Movement

  • In 1922 the Turkish leader, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, abolished the Caliphate

  • Hindu-Muslim relationship also declined

  • Violent clashes between them took place in the following years

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