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计算机网络. 指导教师 : 杨建国. 二零一零年三月. 第一章 网络基础. 第一节 计算机网络的应用. 第二节 网络硬件. 第三节 网络软件. 第四节 参考模型. 第五节 网络实例. 第六节 数据通信服务实例. 第七节 网络标准化. 第一章 网络基础. § 引 言. 一 . Internet ( WWW )的由来与发展 Internet: 因特网 , 指特定的世界范围的互联网 internet: 互联网 , 只代表一般网络互联,如银行网络 Intranet: 企业内部网。优点 : 开销少 , 易于安装

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指导教师 : 杨建国

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:


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. InternetWWW

  • Internet: ,

  • internet: ,

  • Intranet: :

  • ,

  • Internet


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  • Extranet:

  • WWW: //,Internet

  • Internet 2:Internet,IPV6(6),

    Internet IPV4,128

    ,Internet


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  • Internet:

  • ARPAARPAnet

    (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)

  • NSFNSFAnet

  • NASANSInetESNET

  • ,

    Internet


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  • 2. Internet:


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3. Internet:


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  • 4. Internet


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  • 5. Internet:

  • Internet


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.

1.,,,

2.

3.

4.

5. BBS

6.

7. ,,

8. ,,,


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  • 1.1

.

1. :


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  • : ,

    ,,


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  • :

    .


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  • :

    (

    )


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2. :

  • TCP/IP/

  • NetBEUINetBIOS Extended User Interface

    /

  • IPX/SPX/


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  • :

  • :

  • :

  • :

  • (subnet):()


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  • :OSI

  • :OSI

  • .


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3. :

  • 10M/


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  • :


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  • :

  • ( )


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  • ( )


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  • 1.2

.

1. broadcast network:,

2. Point-to-point network:


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. ()

1.local area network: ()


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2.metropolitan area network: ()


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3.wide area network:()


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4.Internet:


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.

1.

2.:


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. ()

1. (resource sharing):

2. (high reliability):

3. (saving money): file server,client-server model

4. : ,,

5. :


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. ()

1. :,,,

2.: electronic mail, video conference

3. : video on demand,game


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.

1. :


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  • SERVER

  • Web

    ,

    ,


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  • :,

    .:,

  • :

  • :.

    Microsoft Exchange Server NetWare

    Group Wise Lotus cc:Mail


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  • WWW/Web: WWW,

    /.

  • : Server.

    :

  • access,vfp

  • sql,mysql

  • informix,oracle,sybase,jasmineDB2, cloudscape,vir

  • FTPFTP.

    (anonymous E-mail).


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  • ArchieFTP

  • :. We b

    : (

    )(

    )

    ()


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  • (Cache)

    InternetIntranetFireWallIP

  • :WinGateWinGate Pro

    Microsoft ProxyNetscapeNetscape ProxyOsitis

    SoftwareWinProxyTiny SoftwareWinRoute

    Sybergen NetworksSyGate

  • !


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2. :. (

>)

  • VPCVmware

  • ()C/S,.

    (TERMINAL SERVICE)

    WINDOWS(WINDOWS-BASED TERMINAL,WBT)

  • ,CD-ROM,,PC

    ,,,,,,,

    ,USB


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  • C/S(CLIENT/SERVER),

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .,


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  • RISC

    UNIX

    WindowsIntelPC


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3. :(), :

;;

PCMCIA

PCI


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  • 4. Modem():

  • 192.168.1.254root

  • /TP-LINK/192.168.1.1admin

  • 192.168.10.1 user/password root/grouter


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5. Repeater:,


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6. Hub:,


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7.Ap: Access Point

  • AP

  • AP30m100m


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  • ADSL MODEM


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8. Bridge:

  • ,

BR400

BR1200

AP 41X1


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9. Router:;

;


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  • 22switch


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10. Switch:

  • ,


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11. :


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  • 568A

  • 568B

    568A1326


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  • 568A

  • 568A568B

  • :,


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  • 1.3

.

1.(layer)(level):

2.(peer):

3.(physical medium):,


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4.(protocol):

5.

6.(network architecture):

7. (protocol stack):,


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1

2

5

5

5

4/5

4

4

4

3/4

3

3

3

2/3

2

2

2

1/2

1

1

1


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  • ---------------:


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M

H1 M

H1 M

H2 H1 M1

H2 H1 M2

H2 H1 M1

H2 H1 M2

M


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.

1.:

2.:

  • ,


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3. : ,,

4. :

5. ,:

6. ;,

,

:

7.

,:

  • :multiplexing demultiplexing

    8. ,:


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.

1. (entity):,

2. (peer entity):

3. nn+1,n

(service provider),n+1(service user)


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4.

5. ,n+1SAP(1-12)

IDUn.IDUSDU

6. SDU,nSDU,

PDU(protocal data unit)


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.

1.connection-oriented service:

2.connectionless service:

3. quality of service:

4. datagram service:()

5. acknowledged datagram service:()

6. request-reply service:()


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.

1. : (primitive)()

2. (confirmed):

(unconfirmed):.


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  • :

  • CONNECT.request:

  • CONNECT.indication:

  • CONNECT.response:

  • CONNECT.confirm:

  • DATA.request:

  • DATA.indication:

  • DISCONNECT.request:

  • DISCONNECT.indication:


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n+1

1

5

7

4

6

n

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

n+1

5

3

2

6

n

8

  • :


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.

1. : (primitive)()

,

2. :

.


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.

1. :

  • :

  • NOS: Netware Unix Linux

    WINNTWIN2000SERVERWIN2003WIN2008

    2. :

    3.


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  • 1.4

. OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)

1.OSI,:

  • ,

  • ,

  • ,


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2.OSI:


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  • (Physical Layer)

  • OSI


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  • (Data Link Layer)

  • ,,

    ,

  • ,,

  • (


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  • (Network Layer)

  • .

    .

    ..

    ,

    ,


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  • (Transport Layer)

  • ,

  • .,

    33,

    .


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  • ,

  • ,

    .

    ,

  • ,


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  • (Session Layer)

  • ,,3

    ,,


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  • ,.


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  • (Presentation Layer)


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  • ,,5

    ,,.

    ,.

    ,

    ,.

    .


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  • (Application Layer)

  • ,

  • ,


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  • OSI:


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TCP/IP

OSI

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

.TCP/IP

  • OSITCP/IP:


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  • TCP/IP :


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1.:

  • TCP/IP

    IP


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2.(internet layer):

  • IP(internet protocol):


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3.(transport layer):

  • TCP(transmission control protocol):

    ,

  • UDP(user datagram protocol):


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4.(application layer):

  • TELNET

  • FTP

  • SMTP

  • DNS

  • NNTP

  • HTTP


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Telnet

FTP

SMTP

TCP

TCP

UDP

IP

IP(ICMPARPRARP)

LANs

Internet

  • IP TCPUDP:


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. OSITCP/IP

1.:

  • ,


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2.:

  • OSI,TCP/IP

  • OSITCP/IP,

  • OSI,TCP/IP

  • OSITCP/IP

  • :

  • OSI,

  • TCP/IP,


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. OSI

1. :

  • .1-20

    2. :

  • ,OSI


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3. :

  • ,

    4. :

  • OSI


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. TCP/IP

1.

2.

3.

4. ()

5. IPTCP,,

6.,,OSI()

.TCP/IP,

,OSI


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  • 1.5

. Novell Netware

1.PC

2.,PC

3.---

4.:1-22


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. ARPANET

1.ARPA,

2.IMP(),IMP

3.ARPANET

4.ARPA

5.TCP/IPDNS


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. NSFNET

1.NSFCSNET,BBN,

,ARPANET

2.NSFNET: 1-26

3.NSFMERITMCI IBMANS,


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. Internet

1.TCP/IPTCP/IP

2.,:Email news


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3.

  • 863 863-306863-317

    CAINONET863-300

  • 863

  • CAINET

  • NSFCNET

  • CERNET 2000

    21


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.

1.,

2.:

  • :

  • :


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  • 1.6

. SMDS----

1.LAN,

2.:LAN,LAN

LAN

3.

  • 45M


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9 188

8

8

4.SMDS

  • :

5.:


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. X.25

1. X.25,

2.CCITTX.25,

3.,switched virtual circuit permanent

virtual circuit

4.PAD(packet assembler disassembler):

X.25

5.3X(triple X): X.25X.28(PAD)X.29

(PAD)


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.(frame relay)

1.

  • 56Kbps1544Mbps

    2.

    3.


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. ISDN ATM

1.ISDN(broadband intergrated services digital network):

  • NISDN2B+D


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2.ATM(asynchronous transfer mode):

  • cell

  • ,

  • ,

  • ATM

  • : 155Mb/s622 Mb/s


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3.ISDN ATM : 1-30


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  • :

  • :(),ATM

  • ATM:

  • ATM:;ATM

    ,,


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  • ATM:

  • :

  • :

  • ATM:

  • ,ATM

  • ATM1Gb/s,

  • ATM


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.

1.DQDBMAN,

53b

2.SMDS,45Mb/s

3.X.25,64kb/s

4.1.5Mb/s

5.ATM,


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  • 1.7

  • :,

  • :


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.

  • 1865ITUInternational

    Telecommunication Union

    1947 ITU

  • ITU- R

  • ITU- T1956 - 1993 CCITT

    SGQ42/SG VII

    OSI

  • ITU- D


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.

  • 1946 ISO (international

    standards organization)ISO 89

    85

  • ISO 200 TC

    SCWG

  • CD

    (Committee Draft) DIS

    (Draft International Standard) IS

    (International Standard)


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  • IEEE(institute of electrical and electronics enginee rs):

    IEEE 802

    ISO 8802


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  • ANSIISO

  • NIST

  • ATM ForumATM

  • OIFOptical Internetworking Forum

  • ITU - T ISO


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.

  • Internet

    RFC Request For Comments)

  • 1969 ARPANET RFC,3000

  • 1983IABInternet Activities

    Board(Internet

    architecture bord)


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  • 1989IAB IRTF

    ( Internet research task force)

    IETF( Internet engineering task force)IETF

    RFC

  • ISO


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1.

2.

3.


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