Efek pertanian terhadap lingkungan
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Bahan kajian pada MK. Pertanian Berlanjut. EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN. RUNOFF & PENCEMARAN AIR. Diabstraksikan oleh : smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2013. PROBLEMATIK PERTANIAN. Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is the leading source of water quality impacts on rivers and lakes.

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Efek pertanian terhadap lingkungan

Bahankajianpada MK. PertanianBerlanjut

EFEK PERTANIAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN

RUNOFF & PENCEMARAN AIR

Diabstraksikanoleh: smno.jurstnh.fpub.sept2013


Problematik pertanian

PROBLEMATIK PERTANIAN

  • Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is the leading source of water quality impacts on rivers and lakes.

  • Activities that cause NPS pollution include poorly located or managed animal feeding operations, overgrazing, plowing too often and improper use of fertilizers and pesticides.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Polutan pertanian

POLUTAN PERTANIAN

  • Sediment (Soil washed off fields)

  • Nutrients (Fertilizers)

  • Pathogens (Bacteria and viruses)

  • Pesticides

    (Insecticides, Herbicides, Fungicides)

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Sedimentation

Sedimentation

The main source of water pollution caused by farming activities is soil that is washed off fields. Rain carries soil particles (sediment) and dumps them into nearby streams or lakes.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Problem sedimentasi

Problem Sedimentasi

  • Clouds the water reducing the amount of sunlight that reaches aquatic plants.

  • Clogs the gills of fish and smothers fish larvae.

  • Other pollutants such as fertilizers and pesticides are often attached to soil particles and can cause algal blooms.

  • Decreases the depth of waterbodies.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Unsur hara pupuk

Unsur Hara Pupuk

Manage nutrient application to avoid ammonium losses to surface water

Practice timely tillage to incorporate manure, balancing the risk of soil compaction with the losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere if the manure is not incorporated quickly.

Avoid applying manure near surface water or on steeply sloping land.

Keep application rates low enough to prevent runoff.

Mix manure into the soil as soon possible after applying it.

On tile-drained land, keep application rates of liquid manure below 40 m3/ha (3,600 gal/ac) or pre-till the field before applying it. This will help prevent the movement of manure directly to tile through cracks or earthworm channels.

Use buffer strips and erosion control structures to filter runoff before it enters surface water. Buffer strips in riparian zones have proven to reduce nutrient movement off the field into nearby surface water sources. Buffer strips consume excess nutrients before they flow into surface water and enhance opportunities for groundwater denitrification.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: . http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/05-073.htm ………… 22/10/2012


Problematik unsur hara pupuk

ProblematikUnsur-Hara Pupuk

Manage fields to avoid excess nitrate that could leach to groundwater

Identify fields and areas sensitive to nitrogen in areas where nutrient applications are planned. For instance, sandy or gravelly soils, and soils with shallow water tables are more susceptible to nitrogen leaching.

Match nitrogen applications with crop requirements. Use the spring or pre-sidedress soil nitrogen test where available (e.g., for corn and barley).

In your Nutrient Management Plan, account for nitrogen contributions from green manure crops and any previous crop rotations.

In your Nutrient Management Plan, account for nitrogen from any manure or biosolid application.

Apply most of the nitrogen just before the time of maximum crop uptake (e.g., sidedress corn).

Split applications of nitrogen through techniques such as fertigation.

Practise crop rotations to make efficient use of nitrogen and maintain healthy soils.

Establish cover crops as needed to "tie up" any excess nitrogen at the end of the season.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/05-073.htm ………… 22/10/2012


Problematik pathogen

Problematik Pathogen

Waterborne pathogens may cause diseases, such as eye, ear and skin infections as well as a number of other health related problems.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Pestisida

Pestisida

Insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are used to kill agricultural pests.

These chemicals can enter and contaminate water through direct application and runoff.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Problematik pestisida

ProblematikPestisida

  • Can poison fish and wildlife

  • Contaminate food sources and destroy the habitat that animals use for protective cover.

  • Can pose a health threat to humans that come in contact with or drink water polluted with pesticides.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Best management practices bmps

Best Management Practices (BMPs)

Diunduhdarisumbernya: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880901003541 ………… 22/10/2012


Pengelolaan hutan pertanian

  • .

PengelolaanHutan-Pertanian

  • Adds income to your farm

  • Adds beauty to your farm

  • Ground cover provides wildlife habitat, reduces soil erosion, and improves water quality

Diunduhdarisumbernya: http://autonopedia.org/garden_and_farm/Permaculture/Permaculture.html ………… 22/10/2012


Planned grazing systems

Planned Grazing Systems

  • Memperbaikitutupanvegetatif, mereduksierosidanmemperbaikikualitas air

  • Meningkatkanefisiensipanendanmembantumenjaminkecukupanhijauansepanjang ,usim

  • Meningkatkanperoduksidankualitashijauan yang dapatmembantumeningkatkanefisiensipakandanmeningkatkankeuntunganusaha

  • Rotasijugamembantumenyebarkanhara-rabuksecaramerata.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Pengelolaan pupuk kandang

PengelolaanPupukKandang

Manure storage structures protect water bodies from manure runoff by storing manure until conditions are appropriate for field application.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Farm pond

Farm Pond

  • Prevents soil erosion and protects water quality by collecting and storing runoff water

  • Provides water for livestock, fish, wildlife, and recreational activities

  • Adds value and beauty to a farm or farmstead

  • Provides a water supply for emergencies

Kolampemanen air hujan

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Wildlife hutan habitat

Wildlife – Hutan Habitat

  • Tutupanmukalahanmengurangierositanah, menambahbahanorganikketanah, menyaring runoff, danmeningkatkaninfiltrasi air hujan

  • Tutupanmukalahandapatmenambahnilaiekonomikelahanpertanian

  • Habitat alami yang terpeliharadneganbaikmampumenyediakanmakanandantempartberlindungbagikehidupanbebas (wildlife).

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Filter strips pertanian kontur

Filter Strips – PertanianKontur

  • Grass, trees and shrubs provide cover for small birds and animals

  • Ground cover reduces soil erosion

  • The vegetative strip moves rowcrop operations farther from a stream.

  • Vegetation prevents contaminants from entering water bodies, protecting water quality

Pengolahantanahmenurutgaruskonturpadalahan miring

Foto:smno-pujon-horti-nop2012

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Penanaman lahan kritis

PenanamanLahan-Kritis

Critical area plantings consist of grass or other vegetation that protects badly eroding areas from soil erosion.

Penanamanlahandibawahtegakanhutan

Foto:smno-pujon-wanatani-nop2012

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Contour strip cropping

Contour Strip-cropping

  • Contour stripcropping is crop rotation and contouring combined in equal-width strips of corn or soybeans planted on the contour and alternated with strips of oats, grass, or legumes.

  • Contour stripcropping reduces soil erosion and protects water quality

  • Contour stripcropping may help reduce fertilizer costs by providing nutrient inputs naturally

Pengolahantanahdanpenanamanmenurutgariskontur

Foto:smno-pujon-horti-nop2012

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Diversion penyaluran air

Diversion – Penyaluran Air

  • Mengurangierositanahpadaklahanbawahan, denganjalanmenangkap air runoff danmencegahnyasupayatidakdapatmencapailahandibawahnya

  • Vegetasidalamsaluranpembuangan air (SPA) dapatmenyaring runoff , sehinggamemperbaikikualitas air.

  • Vegetasimenyediakantempatberlindungbagiburung-burungdansatwa-satwakecillainnya

  • SPA memungkinkanpertumbuhantanaman yang lebihbaikpadatanah-tanahdibagian “bottomland”.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Saluran air berumput

Saluran Air Berumput

  • Grass cover protects the drainageway from gully erosion

  • Vegetation may act as a filter, absorbing some of the chemicals and nutrients in runoff water

  • Vegetation provides cover for small birds and animals

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Contour buffer strips

Contour Buffer Strips

  • Vegetation provides cover and habitat for small birds and animals

  • The strips reduce erosion by slowing water flow and increasing water infiltration into soil

  • By reducing siltation and filtering nutrients and chemicals from runoff, grass strips improve water quality

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Contour farming

Contour Farming

  • Contouring can reduce soil erosion by as much as 50% from up and down hill farming

  • By reducing sediment and runoff, and increasing water infiltration, contouring promotes better water quality

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Field borders

Field Borders

  • Vegetative cover reduces sheet and rill erosion by slowing water flow

  • Vegetation filters runoff, improving water quality

  • Grass and legume strips may be harvested in some cases and are easier to turn on than end rows

  • Vegetation provides cover and habitat for small birds and animals

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Perlindungan sumur

PerlindunganSumur

Well protection is necessary when changing farming practices which occur on or near the farmstead in order to reduce the risk of contamination of water sources--mainly the well.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Peredam angin windbreak

PEREDAM ANGIN = Windbreak

  • Awindbreak reduces wind erosion, conserves energy, reduces heating bills and beautifies a farmstead

  • Trees serve as a sound barrier, muffling road noise

  • Trees and shrubs provide wildlife food and cover

  • Improved livestock weight gains can be expected when livestock are protected from winter winds and snow

Pepohonanpeneduhdanpenangkalangindikampus UB

Foto:smno-pkampus ub-nop2012

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Pasture planting

Pasture Planting

  • Heavy grass cover slows water flow, reducing soil erosion

  • Good pastures protect water quality by filtering runoff water and increasing infiltration

  • Lush pastures offer wildlife cover and habitat

  • As plants recycle and roots die, organic matter in the soil is improved

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Perlindungan sungai

Perlindungan Sungai

  • Streambanks are covered with rocks, grass, trees, or other cover to reduce erosion

  • Better water quality results from reducing amounts of nutrients, chemicals, animal waste, and sediment entering the stream

  • Buffer zones provide cover and habitat for birds and small animals

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Pengujian pupuk kandang

PengujianPupukKandang

  • Manure testing is used to sample and test manure to determine nutrient content.

  • This promotes proper nutrient application to fields.

  • Preventing over-application of manure to crop fields results in improved water quality

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Penanaman pohon

PenanamanPohon

  • Improving stands of woodlands can increase profits

  • Ground cover created by trees and associated debris protects soil for rill and sheet erosion

  • Ground cover also protects water quality by filtering excess nutrients and chemicals from surface runoff and increasing infiltration rates

  • Healthy, well-managed woodlands provide long-term wildlife habitat

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Olah tanah konservasi

Olah-Tanah Konservasi

Conservation tillage involves leaving last year’s crop residue on the soil surface by limiting tillage.

Residupanendauntebudigunakansebagaimulsapermukaan

Foto:smno-mulsa-dau-agst2012

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Pengolahan tanah konservasi

Pengolahan-Tanah Konservasi

  • Ground cover prevents soil erosion and protects water quality

  • Residue improves soil tilth (health) and adds organic matter to the soil as it decomposes

  • Fewer trips and less tillage reduces soil compaction

  • Time, energy and labor savings are possible with fewer tillage trips

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Pengelolaan hara

Pengelolaan Hara

  • Sound nutrient management reduces input costs and protects water quality by preventing over application of commercial fertilizers and animal manure

  • Correct manure and sludge application on all fields can improve soil tilth and organic matter

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Rotasi pergiliran tanaman

Rotasi (Pergiliran) Tanaman

  • Pesticide costs may be reduced by naturally breaking the cycles of weeds, insects, and diseases

  • Grass and legumes in a rotation protect water quality by preventing excess nutrients or chemicals from entering water supplies

  • Meadow or small grains cut soil erosion dramatically

  • Crop rotations add diversity to an operation

Sumber: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378429010003205

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Wetlands

Wetlands

  • Wetlands can provide natural pollution control.

  • They remove nutrients, pesticides, and bacteria form surface waters and can act as efficient, lowcost sewage and animal waste treatment practices

  • Wetlands filter and collect sediment from runoff water

  • Because wetlands slow overland flow and store runoff water, they reduce both soil erosion and flooding downstream

  • Many wetlands release water slowly into the ground which recharges groundwater supplies

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Pengelolaan hama

PENGELOLAAN HAMA

  • Scouting and spot treatment of only those pests that are threatening can save money

  • Using fewer chemicals improves water quality

  • Specific treatments for specific pests on specific areas of a field prevents over treatment of pests

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


Lahan ber teras

LAHAN BER-TERAS

A terrace is an earthen embankment around a hillside that stops water flow and stores it or guides it safely off a field.

Diunduhdarisumbernya: Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff , US EPA & USDA-NRCS. ………… 20/10/2012


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