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THE OLD KINGDOM. Chapter 4.2. YouTube : The Old Kingdom. The Old Kingdom. Egypt was first made of two kingdoms Upper and Lower Upper-Southern Nile River Valley Lower-Northern Delta Menes was king of Upper Egypt

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The old kingdom


Chapter 4.2

Youtube the old kingdom
YouTube: The Old Kingdom


The old kingdom1
The Old Kingdom

  • Egypt was first made of two kingdoms

    • Upper and Lower

    • Upper-Southern Nile River Valley

    • Lower-Northern Delta

  • Menes was king of Upper Egypt

    • He led his army from the Southern Valley into Lower Egypt

    • Conquered the Lower Kingdom and married a princess

The old kingdom2
The Old Kingdom

  • His marriage united the kingdoms

  • He wore two crowns, the Upper and Lower crowns

    • High White one from the south (Upper)

    • Low red one from the north (Lower)

  • Menes declared a new capital of Egypt in Memphis

    • Border city

Old kingdom
Old Kingdom

  • 2600 BCE, the Old Kingdom arose (500 years)

    • Cities were centers of religion and government

    • City centers housed Kings, priests, government officials, and artisans

  • Many Egyptians did not live in the city, but large estates on the Nile banks.

    • Rich owners had gardens and pools

Home of the rich
Home of the Rich

  • The homes had many paintings depicting daily life

  • Family, servants and artisans lived there

    • Artisan were hired to build boats, weave linen, and make tools/pottery

Egyptian farmers
Egyptian Farmers

  • Most Egyptians did not live in the center of the city or on the banks of the Nile.

    • Most lived on the rich estates as farmers

  • Homes made of reed and mud, and later sun-baked brick.

  • Had one room, palm leave roof and built on high ground to avoid flood waters

  • Worked fields, built monuments, dug ditches, and repaired roads

The pharaoh
The Pharaoh

  • Pharaoh is a king

    • Meaning “great house”

  • Pharaoh was ruler, priest, and a god

  • Center of life and ruled on earth as god’s ruled in heaven

  • Owned all land, often gave as a gift to the rich

  • Maintained the land, kept up with it to make sure it could produce

The pharaoh1
The Pharaoh

  • Made sure canals were made and repaired

  • Developed granaries to house the grain so people would not starve if a bad harvest

  • Elected all officials

  • Taxed and issued building permits, trade went through Pharaoh first

  • Word of Pharaoh was law

The pharaoh2
The Pharaoh

  • People believed fate of Egypt depended on Pharaoh’s actions

  • Carried out rituals to ensure good harvest

  • Treated with respect, flutes were played when he appeared

  • Bowed and smelled the earth, or brought head to ground

Youtube video the pyramids
YouTube Video: The Pyramids


The pyramids
The Pyramids

  • Pyramids were built out of respect for the Pharaoh’s.

  • Pyramids were great tombs built for Pharaoh’s as “Houses of Eternity”

  • Built in west to avoid flood waters

  • Built to protect Pharaoh and his belongings

  • EVERYTHING was placed in tomb

Making the pyramids
Making the Pyramids

  • Farmers worked on them for the 3 summer months (flooded fields)

  • Used copper tools to cut granite and limestone blocks that were shipped down the Nile from the quarries

  • After unloaded workers brought them to building site and dragged the blocks up ramps to create the layers

Youtube video making the pyramids
YouTube Video: Making the Pyramids


Religious beliefs
Religious Beliefs

  • Believed in many god’s

  • River God Hapi and Sun God Re were most important

    • River brought water and fertile soil and sun grows crops

  • Osiris is god of harvest and eternal life

The god re sun god
The God: Re (Sun God)

The god hapi river god
The God: Hapi (River God)

The god s osiris god of harvest
The God’s: Osiris (God of Harvest)


  • Egyptians used the technique of embalmment to preserve the bodies of the dead.

    • First only used with Pharaoh to preserve the body so the soul could live on and watch over Egypt

  • Body placed in wood box and covered with natron

    • Natron dried up water in body and shrunk it


  • Body was wrapped in linen

  • Poor people were buried in sand, while rich in tombs