C82sad social and developmental psychology l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 28

C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 126 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology. Welcome!. C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology. 2-hour lectures once per week in both semesters Wednesdays 9am-11am Biology A150 (here!) Semester 1: Social psychology Semester 2: Developmental psychology Handouts, glossaries

Download Presentation

C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


C82sad social and developmental psychology l.jpg

C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology

Welcome!


C82sad social and developmental psychology2 l.jpg

C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology

  • 2-hour lectures once per week in both semesters

  • Wednesdays 9am-11am Biology A150 (here!)

  • Semester 1: Social psychology

  • Semester 2: Developmental psychology

  • Handouts, glossaries

  • Module resources can be found at www.martinhagger.com


Social psychology semester 1 l.jpg

Social Psychology (Semester 1)

  • Course text

Hogg, M.A. & Vaughan, G.M. (2007). Social Psychology (5th Ed.).

Harlow: Prentice Hall

Important: Look at the chapter headings.


What is social psychology l.jpg

What is Social Psychology?

  • Numerous definitions

    • Why? Different strands - based on methods, assumptions and questions raised

    • Concerned predominantly with:

      • Understanding how we interact/communicate

      • Understanding how our social environment shapes our cognitions and judgements/choices

      • Understanding human interaction

    • Different approaches to posing and answering questions that arise


Slide5 l.jpg

What is Social Psychology?

“The scientific investigation of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others”

Allport (1935)


Two strands of social psychology l.jpg

Two strands of social psychology

CONTINUUM

c.f. Mr. Spock

c.f. Hercules Poirot

Sociological

Social Psychology

Psychological

Social Psychology

STRAND

Social constructionist

Humanistic

Logical Empiricism

ORIGIN

Social Cognition

PREVAILING

PROCESSES

Language and Culture

Inductive/Qualitative

e.g. Discourse analysis

Quantitative/

Hypothetico-deductive

e.g. Experimental

METHODOLOGICAL

APPROACH

Popper (1968)

Gergen (1973)

Shotter (1975)

KEY AUTHOR(S)


Social psychology l.jpg

Social Psychology

Some Important Considerations and Assumptions

  • Social psychologists don’t study animals


Social psychology8 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Some Important Considerations and Assumptions

  • People don’t behave in a social ‘vacuum’

  • The individual is the unit of analysis

  • Other people, social contexts, the groups we belong to all affect our decisions and behaviour in social contexts

  • Experimental psychologists use ingenious experiments to look at social phenomena

  • Social psychologists don’t study animals


Social psychology9 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Some Important Considerations and Assumptions

  • Observable behavior

  • Non-observable phenomena: thoughts opinions, attitudes, beliefs, intentions, goals etc.

  • What makes social psychology social is that it deals with real or implied presence


Social psychology10 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Some Important Considerations and Assumptions

Que?

We ‘think’ with ‘words’

Most of us don’t

drop litter


Social psychology and questions l.jpg

Social Psychology and Questions?

  • What are the questions that social psychology intends to answer?

    • Examples:

      • How do we make sense of our decisions and expectations in the social world?

      • How do the choices we make influence our behaviour?

      • What effects do our decisions have on others and how do others decisions effect us?

      • How does our membership of a group influence the way we behave?


Topics of social psychology l.jpg

Topics of Social Psychology

ConformityDiscrimination

PersuasionStereotyping

PowerCrowd behaviour

Group normsGroup identification

Social influenceSocial conflict/harmony

ObedienceSocial change

PrejudiceDecision making

Intergroup relationsLeadership

CommunicationAttitudes

Impression managementSelf-presentation

Social facilitationAttraction and friendship


Social psychology13 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Methodological Issues

  • Scientific methods

  • Hypotheses formed on the basis of knowledge, assumptions and causal or systematic observation

  • E.g. hypothesize that a dancer performs better before an audience than alone

  • Experimental design


Social psychology14 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Methodological Issues

  • Experimental methods in laboratory

  • Careful control of independent variables and its effect on a dependent variable

  • Example 1: Deci and Ryan’s (1985) experiments on intrinsic motivation

  • Aimed to examine effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation


Social psychology15 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Methodological Issues

  • Dependent variables: Amount of time spent on puzzle in free choice paradigm and enjoyment

  • Uses one-way mirror room to observe participants

  • Deci and Ryan’s (1985) experiments on intrinsic motivation

  • Effects of rewards on puzzle solving

  • Independent variable: Reward, no-reward conditions


Results of deci and ryan s experiment l.jpg

Results of Deci and Ryan’s Experiment

Intrinsic Motivation


Social psychology18 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Methodological Issues

  • Example 2: Bandura et al.’s (1961) Bobo Doll

    Experiment

  • Independent variable: Children exposed to two ‘models’ of behaviour =

    • aggressive ‘model’ (e.g. adults punched, kicked, hit doll, tossed it in the air, while saying “Hit him down”, “Sock him in the nose” etc.)

    • nonaggressive adult model (both verbal and physical)

  • Dependent variable: Amount of aggressive actions children performed when freely interacting with the Bobo Doll


Bobo doll experiment l.jpg

Bobo Doll Experiment

Method

  • Bandura et al. (1961): Children watched an adult playing with ‘Bobo doll’ (5-foot inflated plastic doll).


Slide20 l.jpg

Bobo Doll Experiment

Method

Source: Bandura & Walter (1963)


Social psychology21 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Methodological issues

  • Experimental methods in field

  • Naturalistic settings outside laboratory

  • Field experiments have high external validity

  • Less control over extraneous variables

  • More difficult to obtain subjective measures (usually relies on observed behaviour)


Social psychology22 l.jpg

Social Psychology

Field Experiment

  • Dutton & Aron (1974) examined the mis-interpretation of arousal according to environmental feedback

  • Method: Male participants crossed either

    • a wobbly suspension bridge high over a canyon = high anxiety

      OR

    • or a solid bridge only 10 feet above a brook =low anxiety

  • As each participant crossed the bridge, an attractive female research assistant approached and

    • administered questionnaire about some ambiguous pictures of people

    • gave him her phone number in case he had questions about the study


  • Slide24 l.jpg

    Social Psychology

    Field Experiment

    • Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: Participants on the suspension bridge found more sexual themes in pictures and were also much more likely to call the woman

    • Conclusion: The arousal that occurred on the wobbly suspension bridge was fear, but participants misattributed it to sexual arousal because of the presence of the attractive research assistant


    Slide25 l.jpg

    Social Psychology

    Methodological issues

    • Nonexperimental methods

    • Case studies

      • In-depth analysis of a single case

      • Interviews, questionnaires, behavior observation

      • Rich data but less generalizable to population

    • Survey research and field studies

      • Questionnaire studies and correlations between constructs

      • Large samples of respondents looks at group responses

      • Generalizable, but cannot infer causality because data is CORRELATIONAL

      • Doesn’t involve CHANGING variables/conditions of people


    Slide26 l.jpg

    Social Psychology

    Theories

    • Behaviourism

    • Neo-behaviourists (e.g., Bandura) need to evoke unobservable constructs to explain behaviour

    • E.g. Social Modelling imitation of behaviour and shaping by vicarious learning

    • Cognitive psychology

    • Representations and cognitive consistency, E.g. Lewin’s (1951) Field theory representations of social environment affect motivation

    • Aronson (1984), Festinger and Carlsmith – cognitive dissonance (arousal) evoked attitude change


    Slide27 l.jpg

    Social Psychology

    Theories

    • Evolutionary social psychology

    • Important behavioural tendencies evoked a survival benefit and therefore became part of human genetic makeup

    • More recently in the form of sexual selection e.g. fitness indicator theory, sensory bias theory

    • Personality

    • Stable, generalized, heritable traits that influence behaviour in a number of contexts

    • Little evidence for true heritable traits

    • Collectivist theories: people behave according to social context


    Slide28 l.jpg

    Social Psychology

    Theories

    • Social cognition

    • Information processing is central to the theory

    • Examines the effects of social information on decision making and behaviour

    • Assumes all individuals process information in the same manner


  • Login