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Our Planet’s Heating System. Sun, wind and ocean currents. Chapter objectives. Understand the term ‘greenhouse effect’. Be able to explain how the greenhouse effect warms the earth. Understand how people’s actions can lead to global warming.

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Our planet s heating system

Our Planet’s Heating System

Sun, wind and ocean currents


Chapter objectives
Chapter objectives

  • Understand the term ‘greenhouse effect’.

  • Be able to explain how the greenhouse effect warms the earth.

  • Understand how people’s actions can lead to global warming.

  • Learn how earth’s heath is spread around the planet.

  • Discover why wind occurs and how the air moves.

  • Learn about two ocean currents (great rivers that flow slowly across the oceans).


Greenhouse effect
Greenhouse effect

Key words

  • Atmosphere – a blanket of gases around the earth.

  • Climate Change – changes to the world’s atmosphere.

  • Greenhouse gases

  • Global warming


Did you know
Did you know…..

  • The sun heats the earth?

  • The earth then heats the atmosphere

  • The atmosphere is a blanket of gases surrounding the earth – it includes nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and small amounts of other gases such as carbon dioxide.


What is climate change

  • Climate Change refers to changes in

  • the world’s atmosphere.

  • It includes a rise in average global

  • temperature and changes in rainfall,

  • and other weather patterns.

What is Climate Change?



The Greenhouse Effect

  • At the heart of Climate Change is the GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

effetdeserretoimeme.com


Greenhouse Effect

  • Greenhouses trap heat from the sun.

  • The glass panels let in light but keep heat from escaping.

  • This causes the greenhouse to heat up.

qwickstep.com


Greenhouse Effect

  • The same thing happens when a car is left in direct sunlight.

itswrong.webs.com


0n Earth, the atmospheric gases allow sunshine to pass through but absorb heat that is radiated (bounced) back from the warmed surface of the Earth

kirklees.gov.uk


Greenhouse Effect through but absorb heat that is radiated (bounced) back from the warmed surface of the Earth

  • The gases in the atmosphere

  • act like a blanket around our

  • planet which traps in heat,

  • making the temperature rise.

  • This is called the Greenhouse

  • Effect and is a natural

  • process that keeps the planet

  • warm and sustains life.

  • If the greenhouse effect

  • didn’t exist, the average

  • temperature on earth would

  • be around -18ºC.

solcomhouse.com


Without greenhouse gases, through but absorb heat that is radiated (bounced) back from the warmed surface of the Earth

heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 16ºC colder...



Greenhouse Effect live.

  • So what’s the problem?

  • The increasing amounts of greenhouse gasses released

  • into the atmosphere due to human activities such as

  • burning fossil fuels and cutting down forests is trapping

  • more heat so making the planet warmer than it should

  • be. This results in Global Warming.

kirklees.gov.uk


Global warming! live.

newscientist.com


Greenhouse gases live.

  • There are six greenhouse gases and it is

  • thought that carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of

  • the most important greenhouse gas.



GREENHOUSE GASES live.

  • Greenhouse gases can come from;

  • Natural sources

  • Man-Made sources


Natural climate change

Greenhouse gases occur naturally and cause the climate to change in a normal, natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.

Natural Climate Change


Carbon Dioxide Occurs Naturally change in a normal, natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.

wondertime.go.com

Produced by living organisms through respiration

(breathing).


Sulphur Dioxide Occurs Naturally change in a normal, natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.

geology.com

Released from volcanoes


Methane Occurs Naturally change in a normal, natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.

michellehenry.fr

Decomposition of organic matter (especially in wetlands).


Nitrous oxide occurs naturally
Nitrous Oxide Occurs Naturally change in a normal, natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.

From

bacteria

in soil.

fnal.gov

123rf.com

During

lightning

storms.


Man has increased the amount of greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere

Man-made Climate Change change in a normal, natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.

Man has increased the amount of Greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere.

marchantscience.wikispaces.com


Man made climate change this increases the greenhouse effect

Man-made Climate Change change in a normal, natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.This increases the Greenhouse Effect.

marchantscience.wikispaces.com


Man-made Sources of change in a normal, natural way. Lets look at 4 of them.

Carbon Dioxide

globalwarmingimages.net

Burning of solid waste, wood, and fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal).



Man made sources of sulphur dioxide
Man-made sources of Sulphur the industrial revolutiondioxide

A lump of coal might look like it only contains carbon, but there is an impurity hidden in within it.

mii.org

Sulphur is found in most fossil fuels and is a problem when it burns it forms sulphur dioxide.

hertenberger.co.za


Man-made Sources of Nitrous Oxide the industrial revolution

Agricultural and industrial processes

gosolarenergyforlife.com


Car engines

Man-made Sources of Nitrous Oxide the industrial revolution

Car Engines

The spark plug in the car engine causes the nitrogen and oxygen in the air to react together.


Man made sources of methane
Man-made Sources of Methane the industrial revolution

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‘CH4’

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Production and transport of fossil fuels

Decomposition of organic waste (landfills/livestock farming)

DID YOU KNOW...Ruminants belch tremendous amounts of methane (and other greenhouse gases)

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‘CH4’

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bajan.wordpress.com the industrial revolution

Now come fears of a methane time bomb, part two…

…this one a result of melting of the sub-sea layer of permafrost which will release methane deposits formed before the last ice age.

Climate scientists have been concerned about a so-called “methane time bomb”…

…set off when warming Arctic temperatures melt permafrost and cause

frozen vegetation in peat bogs

and other areas to decay,

releasing methane

and carbon dioxide.

bajan.wordpress.com


The effects of out of control the industrial revolution

Climate Change


If the greenhouse effect becomes stronger, it could make the Earth warmer than usual.

Even a little extra warming may cause problems for humans, plants, and animals.

freakyweather.com


What if the Earth heats up? Earth warmer than usual.

Sea levels around the world could rise.

Cities on coasts would flooding.

lilithnews.com

sinostand.com


What if the Earth heats up? Earth warmer than usual.

Temperate places that now receive frequent

rain and snowfall might become hotter and

drier, leading to more drought.

serc.carleton.edu


What if the Earth heats up? Earth warmer than usual.

Frequent periods of drought would make

it hard to raise crops for food, leading to

famine.

photoshelter.com

jamblichus.wordpress.com


What if the Earth heats up? Earth warmer than usual.

Forest fires could occur more often.

blogs.canoe.ca


What if the Earth heats up? Earth warmer than usual.

Plants and animals unable to take the heat

may go extinct, and be replaced by heat

tolerant species.

neutralexistence.com

saddleridgeva.com


What if the Earth heats up? Earth warmer than usual.

Hurricanes, tornadoes and other storms

caused by changes in heat and water

evaporation might occur more frequently

and be more intense.

pantherfile.uwm.edu

ownthedollar.com


The effects of Climate Change Earth warmer than usual.

  • We expect that because of climate change:

  • Temperatures will increase.

  • Winter rainfall will get heavier, increasing

  • the risk of flooding.

kirklees.gov.uk


The effects of Climate Change Earth warmer than usual.

  • Summer rainfall may reduce considerably,

  • creating pressure on water resources.

  • Sea levels will rise due to melting ice caps, leading

  • to further coastal erosion and flood risk.

kirklees.gov.uk


What is happening in the Arctic is a "tipping point” Earth warmer than usual.

There is a threshold where a slight rise in the Earth's temperature can cause a dramatic change in the environment that itself triggers a far greater increase in global temperatures.

Scientists worry that climate change is progressing so rapidly that, within decades, humans may be helpless to slow or reverse the trend.

This is the ‘tipping point’ beyond which really dangerous climate change is likely to be unstoppable.


Activity
Activity Earth warmer than usual.

  • Think of ways in which you could reduce global warming. Watch the following videos to see if they could give you any ideas.

    The bulb

    Young people

    Homework: Write what you could do to reduce global warming on the class website.


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives Earth warmer than usual.

  • Learn that the sun is distributed unevenly over the earth’s surface.

  • Discover what wind is and how wind is formed.

  • Learn how the air moves around the earth


The suns distribution of heat
The suns distribution of heat Earth warmer than usual.


Uneven distribution of heat
Uneven distribution of heat Earth warmer than usual.



The equator
The equator Earth warmer than usual.

  • The equator is the hottest place on earth as the suns rays are directly overhead. The rays are concentrated on a smaller area which becomes very hot.

  • Far from the equator the sunrays are slanted which causes them to be spread over larger distances so temperatures are lower.


Moving air wind
Moving Air (wind) Earth warmer than usual.

  • Some parts of the earth are warmer than others – some parts of the atmosphere are warmer than others.

    This causes wind to happen.

  • Air has weight – this is called atmospheric pressure

  • Cold air is heavy. This heavy air presses down on the earth which causes high pressure.

  • Warm airis light. Because it is light it rises up from the earth. This causes low pressure.

  • Winds blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.


More about winds
More about winds Earth warmer than usual.

  • Winds are named after the direction from which they blow

    Winds that blow from the equator are warm winds.

    Winds that blow from the higher latitudes towards the equator are said to be cool winds.

    The winds that are most common in an area are called prevailing winds.


Activity1
Activity Earth warmer than usual.

  • Draw the shape of the earth into your copies.

  • Mark in the equator.


Coriolis force
Coriolis Force Earth warmer than usual.

Northern hemisphere – winds move to the right

Southern hemisphere – winds move to the left

The is because the earth rotates on its axis from west to east


Ocean currents
Ocean Currents Earth warmer than usual.

  • Great rivers that flow slowly across the surface of our oceans.

  • The currents that flow from higher latitudes towards lower latitudes are called cold currents

  • Currents that flow from the equator to the poles are called warm currents


Cold and warm currents
Cold and Warm Currents Earth warmer than usual.

  • In pairs discover the effects of warm and cold ocean currents (pg 69)

  • Write your findings into your copy.

  • Give an example of each type of current.


End of chapter
End of Chapter Earth warmer than usual.

  • Go back to your learning objectives for this chapter.

  • Traffic light


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