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LCD720 – 04/01/09. Phonology and grammar. Announcements. Midterm Grades on Blackboard Reminder 10% of your grade is for participation Final paper Guidelines are on Blackboard Due on May 13 before class Submit on Blackboard (or e-mail) In Word (not pdf). Homework.

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lcd720 04 01 09

LCD720 – 04/01/09

Phonology and grammar

announcements
Announcements
  • Midterm
    • Grades on Blackboard
  • Reminder
    • 10% of your grade is for participation
  • Final paper
    • Guidelines are on Blackboard
    • Due on May 13 before class
    • Submit on Blackboard (or e-mail)
    • In Word (not pdf)
homework
Homework
  • Construct a fill-in-the-blanks exercise for teaching contractions/blendings
    • Form groups of three, and try out your exercise on your two fellow students
    • Which items (blanks) worked well?
    • Which items didn’t work that well? Why? What changes do you suggest?
interfaces or how pronunciation is involved in other parts of language knowledge and skills
Interfaces, or How pronunciation is involved in other parts of language knowledge and skills
  • Listening: perception
  • Grammar
  • Orthography (spelling)

Today

phonology and grammar
Phonology and grammar
  • A morpheme may be pronounced differently depending on its phonological environment (morphophonology)
    • E.g., past tense -ed
  • Pronunciation problems can affect grammar
    • Morphemes (regular and irregular forms)
    • Word classes (nouns vs. verbs)
  • Pronunciation needs to be addressed in the grammar lesson
phonology and regular morphemes
Phonology and regular morphemes
  • English has 8 regular morphological inflections
    • -s
      • Plural nouns
      • Possessive
      • Third-person singular present tense
    • -ed
      • Past tense
      • Past participle / passive
    • Present participle: -ing
    • Comparative degree: -er
    • Superlative degree: -est

-s and -ed change depending on the phonological environment;

-ing, -er, and -est don’t change

s morphemes
-s morphemes

Note: Pronunciation of all three morphemes is the same, even if the spelling isn’t

  • Remember the rules
  • Examples:

/z/ /s/ /əz/

    • boys boats buses (plurals)
    • sees makes uses (3rd sg verb)
    • Marvin’s Mike’s Rose’s (possessive)
  • /z/ is the basic form (after vowels and voiced consonants)
    • /z/ becomes /s/ after voiceless consonants
    • /z/ becomes /əz/ after sibilants
      • Sibilants: /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /ʧ/, /ʤ/
s morphemes1
-s morphemes
  • Possessive of regular plural nouns
    • The girl’s book vs. The girls’ book
    • The pronunciation is the same
  • Possessive of irregular plural nouns
    • Men’s clothing, children’s toys
    • ’s is added to the irregular plural form
  • The same rules apply for contractions of is, has and does
    • /z/ His name’s John
    • /s/ It’s raining
    • (/əz/ Rich’s sick)
teaching s morphemes
Teaching -s morphemes
  • Usually these three morphemes are not presented simultaneously
    • Students should be reminded of the rules of the previously introduced morpheme
  • Go through the five stages
    • Consciousness raising
    • (Listening discrimination):
      • Instead: e.g., fill-in-the-blanks with spoken text
    • Controlled practice
    • Guided practice
    • Communicative practice
which allomorph
Which allomorph?
  • Plural allomorphs:
    • Do you hear /z/, /s/ or /əz/?
  • Past tense allomorphs:
    • Do you hear /d/, /t/ or /əd/?
regular past tense ed
Regular past tense -ed
  • Give examples; describe the rules
    • What is the basic form?
    • When does the form change, and why?
  • What other verb forms have –ed?
  • What activities do you propose for each of the five stages, and why?
    • What difficulties may arise when you develop an activity, e.g., should you avoid certain verbs?
slide13
-ed
  • Examples:

/d/ /t/ /əd/

    • cried walked chatted
    • robbed kissed added
  • /d/ is the basic form (after vowels and voiced consonants)
    • /d/ becomes /t/ after voiceless consonants
    • /d/ becomes /əd/ after /t/ and /d/
teaching ed
Teaching -ed
  • Relevant for simple past, present/past perfect, and passive
  • Similar to teaching –s
  • Go through the five steps
    • Consciousness raising
    • (Listening discrimination):
      • Instead: e.g., fill-in-the-blanks with spoken text
    • Controlled, guided, communicative practice
  • Caveat: Many highly frequent verbs are irregular (was, had, did, made, …)
    • Make sure the exercises elicit regular verbs
more morphophonology
More morphophonology
  • -ing (progressive, gerunds)
  • -er and –est (comparatives, superlatives)
  • Irregular forms (nouns, verbs)
  • Part-of-speech alternations
slide16
-ing
  • -ing is used for progressive participles
    • walking, reading, studying
  • -ing can be pronounced as -in’
    • Ain’t misbehavin’
    • Depends on formality and on the speaker
    • Does not depend on the phonological environment
er and est
-er and -est
  • -er and -est have the same meaning as more and most (periphrastic forms)

-er/more -est/most

    • big bigger biggest

*more big *most big

    • beautiful more beautiful most beautiful

*beautifuller *beautifullest

  • When to use -er and -est, and when more and most?
    • There are rules, but they’re not as strict as for -s and -ed
  • What rules do you know? (see next slide)
er and est1

Hint: The morphology has to do with the phonology

-er and -est

What rules for -er/-est vs. more/most?

  • big – bigger – biggest
  • small – smaller – smallest
  • happy – happier – happiest
  • friendly – friendlier – friendliest
  • narrow – narrower – narrowest
  • curious – more curious – most curious
  • slowly – more slowly – most …
  • independent – more …– most …
  • tender – more … – most … (tenderer/tenderest?)
  • stupid – more stupid – most stupid

stupider?

stupidest?

  • handsome – more handsome – most handsome

handsomer?

handsomest?

Try to think of more examples

er est vs more most
-er/-est vs. more/most
  • -er/-est
    • One-syllable words
      • big – bigger – biggest
      • small – smaller – smallest
      • large – larger – largest
    • Two-syllable words that end in –y
      • happy – happier – happiest
    • Many two-syllable adjectives that end in unstressed –ly, -ow, or –le
      • friendly – friendlier – friendliest
      • narrow – narrower – narrowest
      • gentle – gentler – gentlest

Or: more / most friendly

er est vs more most1
-er/-est vs. more/most
  • more/most
    • Many two-syllable adverbs ending in -ly
      • slowly – more slowly – most slowly
    • Other two-syllables adjectives and adverbs
      • curious – more curious – most curious
    • Adjectives and adverbs of three or more syllables
      • independent – more independent – most independent
er est vs more most2
-er/-est vs. more/most

Depends on formality

  • Variable cases
    • Two-syllables adjectives that end in –er or –ure
      • tender – more tender – most tender
      • tender – tenderer – tenderest
    • Two-syllable adjectives that end in a weakly stressed vowel, with final /d/ or /t/
      • stupid – more stupid – most stupid
      • stupid – stupider – stupidest
    • Two-syllable adjectives that end in weakly stressed -some
      • handsome – more handsome – most handsome
      • handsome – handsomer – handsomest
teaching comparative and superlative forms
Teaching comparative and superlative forms
  • Don’t introduce all rules at once
    • This will overwhelm the student
    • Start with the clearest, most basic rules
      • One-syllable words get -er/-est
      • Two-syllable words in -y get -er/-est
      • Longer words (three or more syllables) get more/most
  • Give a lot of examples
    • When there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogy to examples
er est or more most and why
-er/-est or more/most? And why?

-er/-est

-er/-est

-er/-est

more/most

more/most

either

more/most

-er/-est

more/most

more/most

more/most

-er/-est

none!

one syllable

two syllables, -y

two syllables, -le

≥ 3 syllables

two syllables, other

two syllables, -ly

≥ 3 syllables

two syllabes, -t/-d

two syllables, other

≥ 3 syllables

≥ 3 syllables

one syllable

can’t get better than perfect

  • short
  • noisy
  • simple
  • personalized
  • stylish
  • costly
  • fabulous
  • quiet
  • careful
  • appealing
  • easily
  • pale
  • perfect
irregular forms nouns
Irregular forms: Nouns
  • Some irregular forms come from Latin and Greek
    • criterion – criteria; datum – data
  • Other irregular forms have a Germanic origin

Vowel change

    • foot – feet; man – men
    • This is still used in modern German
      • Mann – Männer (“man” – “men”)

f/v alternation

    • leaf – leaves; wife – wives; shelf – shelves
    • Historically /f/ became /v/ between two vowels (when the ‘e’ in leaves, wives, shelves was still pronounced)

θ/ð alternation

    • bath/baths; truth/truths (θ in singular, ð in plural)
irregular forms verbs
Irregular forms: Verbs
  • Two very frequent verbs
    • be: am/is/are – was/were – been
    • go: go – went – gone
  • Other frequent, irregular verbs have recognizable patterns
    • E.g., /ɪ-æ-ʌ/ pattern
      • sing – sang – sung; begin – began – begun
    • These patterns are remnants of older rules
    • Students can use these regularities to learn the verb forms
irregular forms verbs1
Irregular forms: Verbs
  • Some examples: verbs that get or have -t / -d (‘weak verbs’)
    • /d/ => /t/
      • build – built – built; send – sent – sent
    • no change
      • let – let – let; hit – hit – hit
    • /iy/ + /d/ => /ɛ/ + /t/
      • creep – crept – crept
      • leave – left – left
    • Vowel shortening (/iy/ => /ɛ/; /ay/ => /ɪ/)
      • feed – fed – fed; slide – slid – slid
    • And more…
irregular forms verbs2
Irregular forms: Verbs
  • Some examples: vowel change (‘strong verbs’)
    • Three different vowels
      • sing – sang – sung; begin – began – begun
    • Same vowel in past and past participle
      • dig – dug – dug; win – won – won
    • /ay/ - /ow/ - /ɪ/ + -en
      • drive – drove – driven; write – wrote – written
    • Vowel change in past tense only
      • run – ran – run; come – came – come
    • And more…
teaching irregular forms
Teaching irregular forms
  • Don’t present all rules at once
    • This will overwhelm the students
    • Present exceptions, and a few rules
      • am/is/are – was/were – been; go – went – gone
      • /ɪ-æ-ʌ/ pattern: sing – sang – sung
      • /d/ => /t/: send – sent – sent
      • no change: hit – hit – hit
  • Give a lot of examples
    • When there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogy
    • When students memorize the forms, they will discover some of the patterns on their own
part of speech alternations
Part-of-speech alternations
  • Remember:
    • Sometimes, nouns and verbs have a different stress pattern
      • CONDUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v)
      • REBel (n) vs. reBEL (v)
    • Note: this is not a rule, just a pattern for some words
  • There are other systematic differences between nouns and verbs as well...
part of speech alternations1
Part-of-speech alternations
  • /s/-/z/, /θ/-/ð/, /f/-/v/ alternations between nouns and verbs

noun verb

    • use/use /yuws/ /yuwz/
    • loss/lose /lɑs/ /luwz/
    • advice/advise /ədvays/ /ədvayz/
    • teeth/teethe /tiyθ/ /tiyð/
    • life/live /layf/ /lɪv/
    • proof/prove /pruwf/ /pruwv/
  • Remember: Voicing of consonants affects the length of the preceding vowel
part of speech alternations2
Part-of-speech alternations
  • No stress vs. light stress
    • DUplicate (n) vs. DUpliCATE (v)

/ət/ /eyt/

  • Location of stress
    • CONDUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v)
    • PROJECT (n) vs. proJECT (v)
  • Remember: No stress vs. light/strong stress affects vowel reduction
  • Can you think of more examples?
teaching part of speech alternations
Teaching part-of-speech alternations
  • Don’t present all rules at once
    • This will overwhelm the students
    • Present a few rules
      • advice/advise; life/live
      • DUplicate (n) vs. DUpliCATE (v)
      • CONDUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v)
  • Give a lot of examples
    • When there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogy
  • Caveat: Don’t assume students know either the correct pronunciation or the part of speech of any of these words
teaching phonology and grammar
Teaching phonology and grammar
  • Address pronunciation as soon as these grammar items are introduced
    • Pronunciation (and perception) of past tense, plural, possessive, etc. should be an integral part of the grammar lesson
    • Students need to be able to hear the affixes and stress patterns correctly, so they can learn from the input
    • Students need to be able to pronounce the suffixes and stress patterns correctly
  • Remember that students may have problems with both the grammar and the phonology (clusters, stress, etc.)
why are third person s and past tense d so difficult to learn
Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn?
  • Despite being very frequent
  • They are difficult to hear (low perceptual salience):
    • very short
    • in clusters
    • in unstressed syllables
    • /s, z/ and /t, d/ are just one sound and not a separate syllable
      • Compare -ing, -er, -est
perceptual salience
Perceptual salience
  • Identify the word
    • Word 1
    • Word 2
    • Word 3
  • Identify the word
    • Word 1
    • Word 2
    • Word 3
  • Identify the sound
    • Sound 1
    • Sound 2
    • Sound 3
  • Identify the sound
    • Sound 1
    • Sound 2
    • Sound 3

added

/əd/

played

/d/

crunched

/t/

kisses

/əz/

ribs

/z/

ships

/s/

why are third person s and past tense d so difficult to learn1
Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn?
  • They have three different allomorphs
    • /s, z, əz/ and /d, t, əd/
    • Compare -ing: usually /ɪŋ/, sometimes /ɪn/
    • Compare -er/-est: forms don’t change
  • Similar sounding morphemes
    • Third person -s sounds the same as plural -s, possessive -s, and contractions of is and has
    • Compare: -er and –est are usually comparatives
why are third person s and past tense d so difficult to learn2
Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn?
  • They have complex meanings
    • -s: Third person singular present tense (3 things!)
    • Compare plural –s: plural (1 thing)
  • L1 interference
    • If L1 doesn’t have subject–verb agreement or past tense, -s and -ed may be more difficult to learn
  • They don’t add much meaning (past tense is often clear from context or adverbial phrases)
  • Further reading: Meta-analysis by Goldschneider & DeKeyser (2001, in Language Learning)
reflection
Reflection
  • If a student pronounces cats as /kæt/ and dogs as /dɑg/, how can a teacher determine whether the student has a grammatical problem or a pronunciation problem?
  • Do you recall learning any phonological differences in the parts of speech of English?
    • Native speakers
    • L2 speakers
reflection1
Reflection

What would you do as a teacher?

  • A student pronounces all past tenses as /əd/
  • A student pronounces all words ending in -ate as /eyt/ regardless of the part of speech
  • A student asks why the plural of wife is wives, but the plural of chief is chiefs
next class april 22
Next class (April 22)
  • Read Chapter 9, but skip:
    • The Alphabet
    • Stressed and Unstressed Vowels and their spelling patterns
    • Word-Internal Palatalization
  • Read Chapter 2 from Phonics they use (on BB)
    • Can you modify these activities for older children and adult?
  • Homework assignment (not graded, not to be handed in) on Blackboard.
    • Bring to class, and be ready to discuss