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SHMD 129 SPORT MANAGEMENT. 17 August managing change. Forces for change:. There are 5 different types of forces for change: Environmental Forces Economic Forces Social Forces Demographic Forces Technological Forces. Forces for change:. Environmental Forces:

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forces for change
Forces for change:
  • There are 5 different types of forces for change:
  • Environmental Forces
  • Economic Forces
  • Social Forces
  • Demographic Forces
  • Technological Forces
forces for change1
Forces for change:
  • Environmental Forces:
    • Organizations interact continually with their external & internal environments.
    • Effective organizations try to “change the change” to their advantage.
    • Try anticipate & predict change, to shape it if you can & prepare for it, if you can’t shape it.
forces for change2
Forces for change:

2. Economic Forces:

  • Changed so drastically, players make millions per year.
  • More star players - more fans & media interest - more money.
  • Huge amount of money involved - team management have very little margin for error when choosing players.
forces for change3
Forces for change:

3. Social Forces:

    • Sociology of sport is an academic discipline that has evolved significantly in the past 40 years.

Sociology of sport - area of sociology that focuses on sport as a social phenomenon & on the social & cultural structures, patterns, & organizations or groups engaged in sport.

  • Exp. Rugby players playing golf; Players going to schools.
forces for change4
Forces for change:

4. Demographic Forces:

  • Teams must take into consideration the diverse populations in their marketplaces.
  • Exp. Age, culture

5. Technological Forces:

  • Technology is very different today than it was only a few years ago.
management functions change
Management functions & change
  • Leaders continuously manage change.
  • Plans already developed require change.
  • Organizing & delegating tasks require employees to make changes.
  • Hiring& training of employees, & their performance evaluations, indicate that aspects of their job, or their approach to their job, must change.
variables of change
Variables of change
  • 4 variables of change refer to what organizations must do:
    • adapt,
    • adjust,
    • shift, or
    • re-create to stay current,
    • to keep or grow market share, or
    • to remain viable as an organization.
variables of change1
Variables of change
  • Strategy:
    • Adjust strategies to adapt to changes in external & internal environment.

2. Structure:

    • A change in strategy changes structure.
    • Structures evolve to adapt to emerging needs.
variables of change2
Variables of change

3. Technology:

  • High-tech innovations (computers, e-mail, internet) increased the rate of change.
  • Technology frequently drives change in strategy & structure.
variables of change3
Variables of change

4. People:

  • Key variable of change.
  • Day-to-day tasks change as technology changes.
  • As tasks change, our skills & performance change.
  • Organizations attempt to change our attitudes & behaviour.
  • We create, manage & use technology.
  • We are organization’s most important resource.
stages in the change process
Stages in the change process
  • During change, people go through 4 distinct stages in the change process:
  • Denial
  • Resistance
  • Exploration
  • Commitment
overcoming resistance to change
Overcoming resistance to change
  • Why do we resist change?
    • We fear uncertainty.
    • We don’t like to be inconvenienced.
    • We always move to protect our self-interest.
    • We fear loss.
    • We like to be in control or at least feel like we’re in control.
overcoming resistance to change1
Overcoming resistance to change
  • How to overcome resistance:
    • Create a trust climate.
    • Develop a change plan.
    • State why the change is necessary & how it will affect your group.
    • Create a win-win situation.
    • Involve people.
    • Provide support.
    • Follow through.
organizational culture
Organizational culture
  • Set of values, beliefs, & standards for acceptable behaviour that its members share.
  • Shared understanding about the identity of an organization.
  • It’s personality.
organizational culture1
Organizational culture
  • Sport team culture adds a special dimension to the idea of organization culture:
    • Teams form very special, strong bond.
    • Behave same way,
    • Determination to win,
    • Deal with winning & losing.
  • Add to this fans – results in many strong forces at play.
components of culture
Components of culture
  • There are 3:
  • Behaviour:
    • Action – what we do & say.
    • Artefacts are the results of our behaviour & include written & spoken language, dress & material objects.
    • Celebrations, ceremonies, heroes, stories.
    • Founders have strong influence on culture.
components of culture1
Components of culture

2. Values & Beliefs:

  • The way we think & behave.
  • Beliefs expressed as ‘if-then’ statements.
  • Values & beliefs are operating principles that guide decision making & behaviour in an organization.
  • Influence ethical or unethical behaviour.
components of culture2
Components of culture

3. Assumptions:

  • Deeply ingrained values & beliefs, never question them.
  • They are automatic pilots that guide our behaviour.
  • Often the most stable & enduring part of culture & most difficult to change.
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