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Memory. Short-Term Memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten Long-Term Memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system Memory Championships, pi , test your memory.

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Memory
Memory

  • Short-Term Memory

    • activated memory that holds a few items briefly

    • look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten

  • Long-Term Memory

    • the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

    • Memory Championships, pi, test your memory


Memory1
Memory

  • Sensory Memory

    • the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system

  • Working Memory

    • focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information


A simplified memory model

Attention to important

or novel information

Sensory input

Encoding

External

events

Sensory

memory

Short-term

memory

Long-term

memory

Encoding

Retrieving

A Simplified Memory Model


Encoding
Encoding

  • Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables

    • TUV ZOF GEK WAV

    • the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2

  • Spacing Effect

    • distributed practice yields better long- term retention than massed practice


Encoding1

Time in minutes

taken to relearn

list on day 2

20

15

10

5

0

8

16

24

32

42

53

64

Number of repetitions of list on day 1

Encoding


Encoding serial position effect

90

Percentage of

words recalled

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Position of word in list

Encoding: Serial Position Effect

Serial Position Effect--tendency to recall best the last items in a list


What do we encode
What Do We Encode?

  • Semantic Encoding

    • encoding of meaning

    • including meaning of words

  • Acoustic Encoding

    • encoding of sound

    • especially sound of words

  • Visual Encoding

    • encoding of picture images



Encoding3

Encoding

(automatic

or effortful)

Meaning

(semantic

Encoding)

Imagery

(visual

Encoding)

Organization

Chunks

Hierarchies

Encoding

  • Hierarchies

    • complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories



Storage sensory memory
Storage:Sensory Memory

  • Iconic Memory

    • a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli

    • a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second

    • Tests of George Sperling

  • Echoic Memory

    • momentary (3-4 sec) sensory memory of auditory stimuli


Storage short term memory

Percentage

who recalled

consonants

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

3

6

9

12

15

18

Time in seconds between presentation

of contestants and recall request

(no rehearsal allowed)

Storage:Short-Term Memory

  • Short-Term Memory

    • limited in duration and capacity

    • “magical” number 7+/-2

      (Miller, 1956)


Storage long term memory
Storage:Long-Term Memory

  • How does storage work?

    • Karl Lashley (1950) – Searching for “engrams”

      • rats learn maze

      • lesion cortex

      • test memory

  • Synaptic changes – “The Brain” Clip

    • Long-term Potentiation (LTP)

      • increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation

  • Strong emotions make for stronger memories


Stress hormones and memory
Stress Hormones and Memory

  • Stress hormones aide memory

    • Hormone surge alert brain that something important has happened.

      • Physical or psychological pain, trauma create surge

      • Rat study – shot of hormones with a leg shock

        • Creates a very strong memory

    • Biological evidence for why emotional memories are stronger.


Stress hormones and memory1
Stress Hormones and Memory

  • Stress hormones block and destroy memory

    • Prolonged stress corrodes neural connections

    • Memories can be blocked by stress hormones

      • Rats trying to find a hidden target

      • Public speaking


Storage long term memory1
Storage:Long-Term Memory

  • Amnesia--the loss of memory

    • Retrograde Amnesia – mass forgetting of old information

    • Antrograde Amnesia – inability to form new memories

      • Oliver Sacks – “Jimmie” (earth from the moon example), H.M., Clive Wearing

    • Childhood Amnesia – Why? (3 min)

  • Amnesiacs demonstrate 2 forms of memory…


Storage long term memory2
Storage:Long-Term Memory

  • Amnesiacs

    • Deny having seen an article and then read it faster

    • Deny abilities to solve puzzle then complete it easily

    • Childhood Amnesia – must have implicit memory in tact

  • Explicit Memory (Declarative Memory)

    • memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”

      • Episodic Memory – personally experienced events

      • Semantic Memory – facts, general knowledge

  • Implicit Memory (Non-declarative Memory)

    • retention independent of conscious recollection

    • Skills (procedural memory), classical-conditioned responses


Storage long term memory subsystems

Types of

long-term

memories

Explicit

(declarative)

With conscious

recall

Implicit

(nondeclarative)

Without conscious

recall

Personally

experienced

events

(“episodic

memory”)

Dispositions-

classical and

operant

conditioning

effects

Facts-general

knowledge

(“semantic

memory”)

Skills-motor

and cognitive

Storage: Long-Term Memory Subsystems


Storage long term memory3

Hippocampus

Storage:Long-Term Memory

  • hippocampus--neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage

  • Processes explicit memories – then sent to multiple different regions.


Storage long term memory4
Storage:Long-Term Memory

  • Cerebellum

    • Process implicit

      memories

      Ex: classical-

      conditioned eye-

      blink disappears

      when you remove

      cerebellum


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