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1. The Aga Khan Development Network An Ismaili perspective on culture, transnationalism, and development in Pakistan Noha Nasser Birmingham School of Architecture and Landscape University of Central England

2. Ismailis ? a diaspora of religion Ismailis challenge traditional notions of diaspora and homeland Ismailis assign a central role to the Aga Khan Ismailis are a de-territorialised form of Islam encompassing diverse peoples The lateral connections between diaspora communities is salient, mediated by highly structured institutions of the AKDN Ismailis have no single homeland nor a desire to create one

3. The Ismailis - introduction Ismailis are a Muslim Shi?a minority They believe in the spiritual legitimacy of a living Imam The Imam has the power to organize the community according to his own interpretation of the Qu?ran Ismailis have suffered persecution by other Muslim groups often invoking the Shi?a concept of ?taqiyya?

4. Ismaili migratory movements Re-assertion of Ismaili identity in Persia in 18th century Imam?s migration from Persia to Indian subcontinent Settlement of large numbers in East Africa in 19th century Africanisation policies expelled Ismailis, re-settled in North America and Europe

5. Ismaili culture and the making of a de-territorialised nation (I) No religious centre, shrine or fixed place of pilgrimage. Imam resides in France travels to followers Ismailism unique form of Islam Imam ? spiritual leader or monarch Ismaili Constitution

6. Ismaili culture and the making of a de-territorialised nation (II) ?Jamaat? and ?Jamat-khanas? a traditional pattern of social and religious organization ?Farmans? ? policies and reforms Migration Integration, assimilation, and de-Indianziation Westernization and Islamization Brotherhood and unity Institutionalized philanthropy

7. A reinterpetation of ?homeland? in the context of Ismaili transnationalism The specificity of historical movements of people, labour and knowledge of Ismailis reconceptualise a transnational, multicentred Ismaili diaspora Lateral connections between jamaat, Aga Khan and AKDN are more salient Ismailis by institutional ties to Aga Khan, shared religious practices, ?farmans? and development initiatives through philanthropy and capital flows

8. The AKDN ? structure and modus operandi (I) The AKDN is a framework of institutions and agencies founded by the Imam to realize the social conscience of Islam through institutional action, bringing together under one coherent aegis, institutions and programmes whose combined mandate is to improve living conditions and opportunity and to help relieve society of ignorance, disease and deprivation. In each territory in which they operate, institutions and agencies of the AKDN pursue programmes for the common good of all peoples, regardless of origin, gender or religion. The collective focus of the institutions and agencies of the AKDN is the creative application of the ethics of Islamic tradition to the circumstances of humanity.

9. The AKDN ? structure and modus operandi (II) Concept of philanthropy through almsgiving donations, tithe and religious dues Aga Khan underwrites all administrative costs of AKDN and affiliates AKDN leverage fundings from international development agencies, governments and private sector Sponsored events ? The Partnership Walk

10. The AKDN ? structure and modus operandi (III) AKDN as a transnational corporation HQ in Geneva, Secretariat in Paris Subsidiaries in 14 other countries AKDN activities oriented towards Ismailis and non-Ismailis National components supportive under central direction of AKDN Effective managerial control by Aga Khan

11. The AKDN ? structure and modus operandi (IV) Relations with the state based on contribution to lessening burden of state-financed social service delivery AKDN national organisations complement state Formal agreements between Aga Khan and government to create ?enabling environment?

12. The AKDN ? structure and modus operandi (V)

13. The AKDN ? structure and modus operandi (VI) Communal/non-Communal Central Institutions Aga Khan Education Services Aga Khan Health Services Aga Khan Planning and Building Services Communal Institutions Territorial, national, regional, and local council Tariqah and Religious Education Board Grants and Review Board Conciliation and Arbitration Board

14. AKDN in Pakistan ? The Northern Area 300,000 Ismailis AKF and 6 international and bilateral donor agencies Education programme Planning and Building Historic Cities Rural Support programme

15. Baltit Fort

16. Karimabad

17. Irrigation and rural development (I)

18. Irrigation and rural development (II)

19. Irrigation and rural development (III)

20. Irrigation and rural development (IV)

21. Aga Khan University and Medical College (I)

22. Aga Khan University and Medical College (II)

23. AKDN ? a model for development Central role of the Imam Lateral connections Ismaili culture ties diaspora community AKDN maintains supportive state relations ?Enabling environment? through formal agreement Bureaucratic structure serves communal and non-communal needs in areas of social, health, economic and cultural development

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