Solar flares and alan gabriel
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Solar Flares and Alan Gabriel. by G. A. Doschek Space Science Division Naval Research Laboratory Presented at Atomic physics, plasma spectroscopy, and solar physics from space: Celebrating the achievements of Alan Gabriel

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Solar Flares and Alan Gabriel

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Solar flares and alan gabriel

Solar Flares and Alan Gabriel

by

G. A. Doschek

Space Science Division

Naval Research Laboratory

Presented at

Atomic physics, plasma spectroscopy, and solar physics from space: Celebrating the achievements of Alan Gabriel

Institut d’Astrophysique SpatialeCNRS-Université Paris-SudOrsay, France20 June 2013

presented by video link from Washington, DC, USA

Work supported by 6.1 NRL/ONR funds


The x ray spectrum of solar flares

The X-ray Spectrum of Solar Flares

  • Alan made seminal contributions towards understanding the X-ray spectrum of solar flares, particularly the so-called “satellite lines” produced by dielectronic recombination and electron impact excitation.

  • A. H. Gabriel – “Dielectronic Satellite

    Spectra for Highly-Charged Helium-like Ion Lines, Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 160, 99 (1972)

    529 citations as of 17 June 2013


Solar flares and alan gabriel

The Standard Flare Model:What are the Non-thermal and Bulk Motions?


Solar flares and alan gabriel

The NASA OSOs and Solar Maximum Mission, the Japanese

Hinotori Mission and the US DoD P78-1 Mission


Solar flares and alan gabriel

From Gabriel 1972, Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 160, 99


Solar flares and alan gabriel

Solar Flare Iron Line Spectra


Solar flares and alan gabriel

Chromospheric Evaporation and Non-thermal Motions in Flares


Solar flares and alan gabriel

Non-thermal

motions in

flares


Solar flares and alan gabriel

But alas, it is rather tragic that the high spectral resolution X-ray investigation of flares ceased after Yohkoh!

However, highly ionized iron

lines appear in the EUV, where

spectral-imaging with multi-layer optics can be used (SOHO/CDS, Hinode/EIS)


Solar flares and alan gabriel

Fe XXIII Flare Profiles (EIS)

150 km/s


Solar flares and alan gabriel

Flare Image and Mass Motions


Solar flares and alan gabriel

Flare Observed by Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)


What next with highly ionized iron lines

What Next with Highly Ionized Iron Lines?

  • We need sensitive imaging X-ray spectrometers that can observe the Fe XXV + satellite lines near 1.9 Å and the Fe XXVI + satellite lines near 1.8 Å in the reconnection region.

    • More sensitive Bragg spectrometers with imaging capabilities?

    • Microcalorimeters?

  • We need more sensitive and higher spatial resolution EIS-type instruments (Solar-C?) with hard X-ray imaging observations (advanced RHESSI?)

  • Summary: Alan Gabriel was a key individual in the ground floor investigation of the high temperature components of solar flares


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