Solar flares and alan gabriel
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Solar Flares and Alan Gabriel. by G. A. Doschek Space Science Division Naval Research Laboratory Presented at Atomic physics, plasma spectroscopy, and solar physics from space: Celebrating the achievements of Alan Gabriel

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Solar Flares and Alan Gabriel

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Solar Flares and Alan Gabriel

by

G. A. Doschek

Space Science Division

Naval Research Laboratory

Presented at

Atomic physics, plasma spectroscopy, and solar physics from space: Celebrating the achievements of Alan Gabriel

Institut d’Astrophysique SpatialeCNRS-Université Paris-SudOrsay, France20 June 2013

presented by video link from Washington, DC, USA

Work supported by 6.1 NRL/ONR funds


The X-ray Spectrum of Solar Flares

  • Alan made seminal contributions towards understanding the X-ray spectrum of solar flares, particularly the so-called “satellite lines” produced by dielectronic recombination and electron impact excitation.

  • A. H. Gabriel – “Dielectronic Satellite

    Spectra for Highly-Charged Helium-like Ion Lines, Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 160, 99 (1972)

    529 citations as of 17 June 2013


The Standard Flare Model:What are the Non-thermal and Bulk Motions?


The NASA OSOs and Solar Maximum Mission, the Japanese

Hinotori Mission and the US DoD P78-1 Mission


From Gabriel 1972, Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 160, 99


Solar Flare Iron Line Spectra


Chromospheric Evaporation and Non-thermal Motions in Flares


Non-thermal

motions in

flares


But alas, it is rather tragic that the high spectral resolution X-ray investigation of flares ceased after Yohkoh!

However, highly ionized iron

lines appear in the EUV, where

spectral-imaging with multi-layer optics can be used (SOHO/CDS, Hinode/EIS)


Fe XXIII Flare Profiles (EIS)

150 km/s


Flare Image and Mass Motions


Flare Observed by Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)


What Next with Highly Ionized Iron Lines?

  • We need sensitive imaging X-ray spectrometers that can observe the Fe XXV + satellite lines near 1.9 Å and the Fe XXVI + satellite lines near 1.8 Å in the reconnection region.

    • More sensitive Bragg spectrometers with imaging capabilities?

    • Microcalorimeters?

  • We need more sensitive and higher spatial resolution EIS-type instruments (Solar-C?) with hard X-ray imaging observations (advanced RHESSI?)

  • Summary: Alan Gabriel was a key individual in the ground floor investigation of the high temperature components of solar flares


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