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Silicon-Interface Scattering in Carbon Nanotube Transistors

Silicon-Interface Scattering in Carbon Nanotube Transistors

Slava V. Rotkin

Physics Department &

Center for Advanced Materials

and Nanotechnology

Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Acknowledgements

Dr. A.G. Petrov (Ioffe)

Prof. J.A. Rogers (UIUC)

Dr. V. Perebeinos and Dr. Ph. Avouris (IBM)

Prof. K. Hess (UIUC) and Prof. P. Vogl (UVienna)

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

OUTLINE

Introduction:

- NT Transistors with "non-monolithic" channel

The old "new" Surface Scattering

- Remote Coulomb Impurity scattering

- Remote Polariton Scattering

Physics of Surface Phonon Polariton (SPP)

SPP and heat dissipation in NT devices

Conclusions

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NT Transistors

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Quantum physics of TFT capacitance

- Fabrication of NT-Array TFTsrevealed new "old" physics.
- very large gate coupling – too strong if not taking into account intertube coupling
- non-uniformity of the channel – self-screening and "defect healing"
- multi-layer dielectrics and surface E/M modes
- interface scattering

Most of the tubes are parallel, but the distance between neighbor tubes may vary.

For TFT applications only semiconductor tubes are needed. Thus one needs to destroy (burn out) metallic tubes. Which randomizes the channel.

self-consistent modeling (Poisson+Schroedinger eqs) including e/m response

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Physics of NT Devices on SiO2

Weak van der Waals interactions...

For a polar substrate

-- such as quartz, sapphire, calcite --

new physics due to evanescent Electro-Magnetic (EM) modes,

aka Surface Phonon-Polariton modes

- weak interaction
- electr. transport
- thermal coupling
- alignment

empty space

integrated

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Charge Scattering:Short Introduction

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Equilibrium distribution function is Fermi-Dirac function:

e.d.f. is symmetric and thus j = 0

The asymmetric non-e.d.f. provides j > 0 (both in ballistic and diffusive model)

Quantum-mechanical calculation of the conductivity may be reduced to the Drude formula

electron velocity which enters the formula can be related to m.f.p. vttr=L

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Scattering rate is proportional to electron velocity which diverges at the subband edge. Thus, the Drude conductivity has "zeroes" at vHs.

Which holds for both metallic and semiconductor tubes.

after Prof. T. Ando

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Remote impurity Scattering

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Coulomb Center Scattering

Scattering in 1D systems is weak due to restricted phase space available for electron: k -> -k

the Coulomb impurities are on the substrate, not within the NT lattice – the remote impurity scattering

on average the Coulomb potential

where e* and nS are the charge and density of impurities

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Coulomb scattering: Results

Scattering in 1D systems is weak due to restricted phase space available for electron: k -> -k

Within this model

a universal expression for

conductance was found

Modeling uses the nonequilibrium solution

of the Boltzmann transport equation

where a quantum mechanical scattering rate

is calculated in the Born Approximation and parameterized by the strength of the Coulomb centers' potential

and DoS

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

RIS Details: Statistical averaging

Statistical averaging over a random impurity distribution of

starting with the Coulomb potential

on average is

proportional to

strength of potential

DoS

scattering form-factor

then, the scattering rate is

here we used notations:

and

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Surface Phonon Polariton

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Digression:

A tutorial on SPP

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Surface Polariton in SiO2

- Surface phonons exist in polar dielectrics:
- due to the dielectric function difference between the substrate and the air, a surface EM wave could exist
- dielectric function of the polar insulator has a zero at wLO, atthe LO phonon frequency
- surface wave can be obtained by solving Maxwell equations with proper boundary conditions

- Specifics of surface polaritons:
- electric field is not normal to the surface (at 45o)
- electric field decays exponentially from the surface (not a uniform solution of Maxwell equations)
- existence of a surface mode essentially depends on existence of the anomalous dispersion region e<0

E

q

H

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Remote Polariton Scattering

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Physics of SPP scattering in SiO2

- Estimates for SiO2-quartz:
- electric field in the air is proportional to decay constant, determined from Mxw.Eq+B.C., and F-factor
- relevant l is proportional to the wavelength of hot electron
- electric field ~107V/m
- finally the scattering time

for vF~108cm/s

and wSO~150meV :

e ~ 105V/cm

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Scattering rate is proportional to the velocity which diverges at the subband edge. Thus, the Drude conductivity has peculiarities at vHs.

reminder

Prof. T. Ando

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Surface Polariton Scattering

- RPS rate varies for intra-subband andinter-subband scattering
- RPS has maximum at the van Hove singularities (for semiconductor-SWNT)

inter-subband transitions are negligible due to non-zero angular momentum transfer

JETP Letters, 2006

At vHs our Born approximation fails which manifests itself as diverging scattering rate

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Surface Polariton Scattering (2)

Correct many-body picture includes phonon renormalization of the electron spectrum.

Within iterative Quantum Mechanical calculation (aka SCBA) new scattering rate obtained:

- averaged near the vHs - still faster than other channels

JETP Letters, 2006

Forward scattering dominates:

q~1/l : forward scattering

q~2ki : backward scattering

for vF~108cm/s and wSO~140meV : l~40 nm

2ki ~ 2p/a ~ 1/nm

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Remote SPP Scattering Rate

T=77;

150;

210;

300;

370;

450 K

lattice T

- scattering rate increases with the electric field strength because of stronger warming of the electron distribution function
- similarly it increases with the temperature
- concentration dependence is weak and can be attributed to the tails of distribution function

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP Scattering Rate and Mobility

- for the SiO2 substrate the SPP channel is likely prevailing over inelastic scattering, such as due to NT (own) optical phonons for the small distance to the polar substrate < ~ 4 nm;

JETP Letters, 2006 (3V,300K)

Nano Letters, 2009

- low-field mobility at 100+K is totally dominated by SPP
- the effect is even stronger for high-k dielectrics due to increase of the Froehlich constant : x20 and more;
- RPS has a weak dependence on the NT radius, thus for narrow NTs it will dominate over the other 1/R mechanisms

SPP

NT

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP Scattering Rate and Mobility

- for the SiO2 substrate the SPP channel is likely prevailing over inelastic scattering, such as due to NT (own) optical phonons for the small distance to the polar substrate < l ~ 4 nm;

JETP Letters, 2006

- SPP low-field mobility for a large number of various chirality NTs allows to infer empirical scaling on the NT radius
- comparison with other mechanisms: R2 for NT acoustic phonons
- lattice temperature is taken as given

lattice T

Nano Letters, 2009

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Saturation Regime

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Saturation Regime: Optical Phonons

Scattering in 1D systems is weak due to restricted phase space available for the electron: k -> -k.

However, the strong scattering at high drift electric field is inevitable: saturation regime. The scattering mechanism is an optical phonon emission which results in fast relaxation rates for the hot electrons and holes.

Inelastic scattering rates have been calculated for SWNTs earlier:

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Saturation Regime: Heat Generation

What was known so far? Inelastic optical phonon relaxation scattering is likely a factor determining the saturation current in SWNTs :

The hot electron energy is transferred to the SWNT phonon subsystem.

The energy dissipation depends on the environment (thermal coupling).

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP and Saturation Regime

Kane, PRL, 2000

Deviation from Ohm's law: first nonvanishing term in R(Vd)=Ro +Vd/Io

Inverse drain current vs. inverse applied

electric field

low-F and high-F

Is are essentially different, being determined by

different scattering mechanisms

[17,0] NT at the doping level 0.1 e/nm

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP and Saturation Regime

Kane, PRL, 2000

Deviation from Ohm's law: first nonvanishing term in R(Vd)=Ro +Vd/Io

Inverse drain current vs. inverse applied

electric field

low-F and high-F

Is are essentially different, being determined by

different scattering mechanisms

low-F scattering is due to all phonons (including NT intrinsic phonon modes) and high-F scattering is due to SPP mechanism

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Modern Electronics andHeat Dissipation Problem

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

ITRS Grand Challenges: The Heat

?

S. Borkar, “Design challenges of technology scaling,” IEEE Micro, vol. 19 (4), 23–29, Jul.–Aug. 1999.

"Energy in Nature and Society: General Energetics of Complex Systems" by V. Smil (2008)

Among main evaluation parameters for novel semiconductor electronics technologies the power consumption, and in particular the power dissipation become more and more important

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP Heat Dissipation

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Joule Heat Generation

Vd

j

q

q

j

q~area~nm2

channel heating due to Joule losses and low thermal coupling to leads

It exists, however, a relaxation mechanism which transfers the energy directly to the substrate without intermediate exchange with the SWNT lattice (phonons) which is an inelastic remote optical phonon scattering

Pioneering work by K. Hess and P. Vogl – back to 1972 – RIP scattering in Si.

The mechanism appeared to be ineffective for Si MOS-FETs and was almost forgotten for decades...

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP and Overheating

j

overheating of the channel : we neglect the thermal sink in the leads (area~nm2), then only

substrate contributes

via thermal coupling:

qC

qph

where

QSPP

- two scattering (NT and SPP) and two coupling (SPP and Kapitsa) mechanisms :
- NT phonons warm the NT lattice but
- the Kapitsa
- resistance is high

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP and Overheating

j

overheating of the channel : we neglect the thermal sink in the leads (area~nm2), then only

substrate contributes

via thermal coupling:

qph

where

- two scattering (NT and SPP) and two coupling (SPP and Kapitsa) mechanisms :
- NT phonons warm the NT lattice but
- the Kapitsa
- resistance is high

QSPP

- assume for a moment that SPP channel is absent

- Joule losses are NOT the same as the total dissipation: NT phonons take only a small fraction of IdF

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP and Overheating

2

4

6

8

10

12

F (V/mm)

PSPP/PNT

200

100

50

20

10

5

2

1

j

overheating of the channel : we neglect the thermal sink in the leads (area~nm2), then only

substrate contributes

via thermal coupling:

qph

where

- two scattering (NT and SPP) and two coupling (SPP and Kapitsa) mechanisms :
- NT phonons warm the NT lattice but
- the Kapitsa
- resistance is high

QSPP

substrate T

- assume for a moment that SPP channel is absent

- Joule losses are NOT the same as the total dissipation: NT phonons take only a small fraction of IdF

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP and Overheating (2)

- ratio of "real"-to-expected losses for two tubes (R~0.5 and 1.0 nm) at two to= 77 and 300K
- inset: data collapse for (linear) dependence on the electron concentration (0.1 and 0.2 e/nm)

- SPP scattering is higher in smaller diameter tubes: simply the SPP field is stronger

- opposite R-dependence for two scattering mechanisms

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

SPP and Overheating (2)

- even in case of no other thermal coupling to substrate, SPP channel releases the heat (R~0.5 nm, T=300K)
- inset: same data vs. Joule loss

- NT transport in saturation regime is determined by both channels

- different temperature dependence for two scattering mechanisms

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Conclusions

- Theory of NT scattering after 10 years still has new uncovered physics
- Physics of interactions in NTs at the hetero-interface with Si/SiO2 is rich for fundamental research
- Hot electron scattering due to SPP modes is by orders of magnitude faster channel for non-suspended NT
- Remote SPP scattering provides a new and very effective thermo-conductivity mechanism

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Nanotube Quantum Capacitance

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

L

R

d

Classical 1D capacitance: line charge has f = r 2 log r + const

therefore: Cg-1 = 2 log z/R

where z = min(d, L, lg)

Distance to metal leads around/nearby

1D channel defines the charge density

r(z) is different for different screening

of 1D, 2D and 3D electrodes.

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

The transverse size a of nanowires and nanotubes is less than the Debye screening length and other microscopic lengths of the material.

Classic view: Linear connection between electric potential and charge

Q=C V ,

in a 1D device: r ~ - C jext

which is to be compared with 3D and 2D:

r ~ - d2j/dx2r ~ - dj/dx

Quantum Mechanical view:

Selfconsistent calculation of

the charge density

Rotkin et.al. JETP-Letters, 2002

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

The transverse size a of nanowires and nanotubes is less than the Debye screening length and other microscopic lengths of the material.

Classic view: Linear connection between electric potential and charge

Q=C V ,

in a 1D device: r ~ - C jext

which is to be compared with 3D and 2D:

r ~ - d2j/dx2r ~ - dj/dx

Quantum Mechanical view:

Selfconsistent calculation of

the charge density

Rotkin et.al. JETP-Letters, 2002

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

1 mm

1 mm

1 mm

Capacitance of the NT Array

Method of potential coefficients (or EE circuit analysis): Screening by neighbor NTs in the array – total capacitance is of a bridge circuit

Fig. : Gate coupling in array-TFT as a function of the screening by neighbor NTs (top to bottom):

same SiO2 thickness = 1.5 um,

NT densities = 0.2, 0.4 and 2 NT/um

2d/L

Screening depends on single parameter: 2d/Lo which has a physical meaning of the number of NTs electrostatically coupled in the array. The tubes that are further apart do not "know" about each other

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Random Array Coupling: Self-healing

DC/C

-0.15

-0.25

-0.35

Current nonuniformity is a deficiency for device production.

ConsiderDr due to non-uniform screening.

d=40 nm

d=600 nm

Three sample distributions of the tubes in the random-tube array (d=160 nm, 80% variance).

One may expect a severe variance in device characteristics because of non-uniform Cg

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Correlation vs. Randomness

DC, %

3.4

d, nm

3.2

3.0

25

50

75

100

125

150

2.8

2.6

2.4

The capacitance of a random TFT array (a single given realization) as a function of the external screening (insulator thickness).

The low density TFT array is within a single tube limit...

...in the high density TFT array the inter-NT coupling is very strong and stabilizes the overall device response.

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

1

C/Cclass

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

d, nm

0.5

10

20

50

100

200

500

Quantum Capacitance in NT-Array TFT

In a single tube FET total

capacitance has 2 terms:

geometric capacitance

and quantum capacitance

for NT array geometrical capacitance further decreases:

L

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

Charge Trapping

_____________

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University

List of publications used in this presentation:

- Stacy E. Snyder, and Slava V. Rotkin, “Optical Identification of a DNA-Wrapped Carbon Nanotube: Signs of Helically Broken Symmetry", Small, accepted, 2008.
- Seong Jun Kang, Coskun Kocabas, Taner Ozel, Moonsub Shim, Ninad Pimparkar, Muhammad A. Alam, Slava V. Rotkin, and John A. Rogers, “High performance electronics using dense, perfectly aligned arrays of single walled carbon nanotubes”, Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2 (no.4) 230-236 (2007).
- Vadim Puller, and Slava V. Rotkin, "Helicity and Broken Symmetry in DNA-Nanotube Hybrids", Europhysics Letters 77 (2), 27006--1-6 (Jan 2007).
- Qing Cao, Ming-Gang Xia, Coskun Kocabas, Moonsub Shim, John A. Rogers, and Slava V. Rotkin, “Gate Capacitance Coupling of Single-walled Nanotube Thin-film Transistors”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90 (2), 023516 (2007).
- Slava V. Rotkin, Narayan R. Aluru, and Karl Hess, ”Multiscale Theory and Modeling of Carbon Nanotube Nano-Electromechanical Systems”, in "Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology (2nd Edition)", Eds.: W. Goddard, D. Brenner, S. Lyshevski, G.J. Iafrate; Taylor and Francis-CRC Press, Chapter 13, pp. 13.20-13.32 (2007).
- Slava V. Rotkin, Alexander Shik, “Electrostatics of nanowires and nanotubes: Application for field-effect devices”, in the Special Issue Nanowires and Nanotubes, Editor: Peter Burke, Publ.: World Scientific, Singapore. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, vol. 16 (no.4), 937-958, (2006).
- Stacy E. Snyder, and Slava V. Rotkin, “Polarization component of the cohesion energy in the complexes of a single-wall carbon nanotube and a DNA", JETP Lett 84, 348, (2006).
- Alexey G. Petrov, Slava V. Rotkin, “Hot carrier energy relaxation in single-wall carbon nanotubes via surface optical phonons of the substrate” JETP Lett 84 (3), 156-160 (2006).
- Yan Li, Umberto Ravaioli, and SV. Rotkin, "Metal-Semiconductor Transition and Fermi Velocity Renormalization in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes", Phys. Rev. B 73, 035415 (2006).
- L. Rotkina, S. Oh, J.N. Eckstein, S.V. Rotkin, “Logarithmic behavior of the conductivity of electron-beam deposited granular Pt/C nanowires”, Phys. Rev. B 72, 233407 (2005).
- Salvador Barraza-Lopez, Slava V. Rotkin, Yan Li, and Karl Hess, "Conductance Modulation of Metallic Nanotubes by Remote Charged Rings", Europhysics Lett 69, 1003 (2005).
- Slava V. Rotkin, “From Quantum Models to Novel Effects to New Applications: Theory of Nanotube Devices”, in “Applied Physics of Nanotubes: Fundamentals of Theory, Optics and Transport Devices”, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Series, Ser.Ed.: Ph. Avouris, Springer Verlag GmbH & Co. KG (2005).
- Yan Li, Deyu Lu, Klaus Schulten, Umberto Ravaioli, and Slava V. Rotkin, “Screening of Water Dipoles Inside Finite-Length Armchair Carbon Nanotubes”, Journal of Computational Electronics, vol. 4, 161-165 (2005).
- Arnaud Robert-Peillard, Slava V. Rotkin, “Modeling Hysteresis Phenomena in Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors”, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 4 (2), 284-288 (2005).
- Deyu Lu, Yan Li, Slava V. Rotkin, Umberto Ravaioli, and Klaus Schulten, “Finite-Size Effect and Wall Polarization in a Carbon Nanotube Channel”, Nano Lett 4, 2383-2387 (2004).
- Yan Li, Slava V. Rotkin, and Umberto Ravaioli, "Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Armchair Carbon Nanotubes by Symmetry Breaking", Applied Physics Lett 85, 4178 (2004).
- Alexey G. Petrov, Slava V. Rotkin, "Transport in Nanotubes: Effect of Remote Impurity Scattering", Phys. Rev. B vol. 70 (3), 035408-1-10, 15 Jul 2004.
- Slava V. Rotkin, and Karl Hess, "Possibility of a Metallic Field-Effect Transistor", Applied Physics Letters vol. 84 (16), p.3139-3141, 19 April 2004.
- Slava V. Rotkin, Harry Ruda, Alexander Shik, "Field-effect transistor structures with a quasi-1D channel", International Journal of Nanoscience vol. 3 (1/2), 161-170, Feb 2004.
- Kirill A. Bulashevich, Slava V. Rotkin, Robert A. Suris, "Excitons in Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes", International Journal of Nanoscience vol. 2 (6), pp. 521-526, Dec 2003.
- Slava V. Rotkin, Harry Ruda, Alexander Shik, "Universal Description of Channel Conductivity for Nanotube and Nanowire Transistors", Applied Physics Letters 83, 1623, 2003.
- Alexey G. Petrov, Slava V. Rotkin, "Breaking of Nanotube Symmetry by Substrate Polarization", Nano Letters vol. 3, No.6, 701-705, 2003.
- Yan Li, Slava V. Rotkin, Umberto Ravaioli, "Electronic response and bandstructure modulation of carbon nanotubes in a transverse electrical field", Nano Letters 3, 183, 2003.
- Slava V. Rotkin, "Theory of Nanotube Nanodevices", in Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Biomedical and Sensor Applications. Editors: Y.G. Gogotsi and Irina V. Uvarova. Kluwer, pp. 257-277, 2003.
- Slava V. Rotkin, Vaishali Shrivastava, Kirill A. Bulashevich, and Narayan R. Aluru, "Atomistic Capacitance of a Nanotube Electromechanical Device", International Journal of Nanoscience vol. 1, No. 3/4, 337-346, 2002.
- Slava V. Rotkin, Ilya Zharov, "Nanotube Light-Controlled Electronic Switch", International Journal of Nanoscience vol. 1, No. 3/4, 347-355, 2002.
- Kirill A. Bulashevich, Slava V. Rotkin, "Nanotube Devices: Microscopic Model", JETP Letters vol. 75 (4), 205-209, 2002.
- Slava V. Rotkin, Yuri Gogotsi, "Analysis of non-planar graphitic structures: from arched edge planes of graphite crystals to nanotubes", Materi. Res. Innovations, 5, 191, 2002.
- Marc Dequesnes, Slava V. Rotkin, Narayan R. Aluru, "Parameterization of continuum theories for single wall carbon nanotube switches by molecular dynamics simulations", Journal of Computational Electronics 1 (3), 313-316, 2002.
- Slava V. Rotkin, Karl Hess, "Many-body terms in van der Waals cohesion energy of nanotubes", Journal of Computational Electronics 1 (3), 323-326, 2002.
- Marc Dequesnes, Slava V. Rotkin, Narayan R. Aluru, "Calculation of pull-in voltages for carbon nanotube-based nanoelectromechanical switches", Nanotechnology 13, 120, 2002.

downloadable from http://theory.physics.lehigh.edu/rotkin/text/pub-list.html

NCN Seminar, UIUC Mar 4 2009 Slava V Rotkin, Lehigh University