High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001
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High Speed Optical Networks: An Evolution of Dependency November 2, 2001. Todd Sands, Ph.D WEDnet Project www.wednet.on.ca University of Windsor. The result of an event in time that slows the transport or processing of information E.g. Machine (processing) latency in microsecs (n =1.2)

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High Speed Optical Networks: An Evolution of Dependency November 2, 2001

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High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

High Speed Optical Networks:An Evolution of Dependency November 2, 2001

Todd Sands, Ph.D

WEDnet Project

www.wednet.on.ca

University of Windsor


Latency

The result of an event in time that slows the transport or processing of information

E.g. Machine (processing) latency in microsecs (n =1.2)

E.g. Network latency in millisecs (x < 130 ms)

Optical transport max. = 300,000 km/sec

Physical parameters of the transport media

Convergence of voice, image and data in the path

Switched cells and packet network behaviours

Potential of WDM optically switched and SONET architectures

Latency


Osi reference model networking 101

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data-link

Physical

When two computers communicate on a network, the software at each layer on one computer assumes it is communicating with the same layer on the other computer.

e.g. For communication at the transport layers, that layer on the first computer has no regard for how the communication actually passes through the lower layers of the first computer, across the physical media, and then up through the lower layers of the second computer.

OSI Reference Model – Networking 101


High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

Do we know the effects of latency!

  • Suspect that the answer is yes! We see it every day!

  • No. of processors, power requirements, processing capability, storage capacity, and the needs of research that use most facilities can be intensive.

  • HPCS resources supplied and funded through a needs-based process, but this can also be because of research

  • What about a GRID? Is it on the same path?

  • Are we mindful of details, such as latency…with respect to one of the most fundamental parts of the GRID… THE NETWORK

  • Do we know how computing resources connect to the outside world?…Maybe…

  • Do we have any control over the “extranet”?


High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

Primary Network

Interface

To Machine Resources

These switches provide

Ethernet to ATM SONET

WAN interfaces

for TCP/IP traffic


Packets vs cells vs frames

Frames – used for larger data amounts over high-speed, low error rate links

2,000 – 10,000 characters in size

Data corrections not link by link

Therefore link by link error checking impacts network latency greatly

Packets – used for smaller data amounts across lower speed, high error rate links

128 – 256 (bytes) characters in size

Lower chances of error in each packet, small amounts re-transmitted

Prioritization through tagging of packets leads to QoS

Cells – very small amounts of data with sometimes no error checking

Highly reliable optical networks sometimes with no error checking

Up to 48 - 53 (bytes) characters in size

Small size allows for load balancing of traffic on network

No payload in cells, no transmission - full payload, then transmission

Uses ATM Adaptation Layers – AAL’s 1-5 for shaping the network

PACKETS VS. CELLS VS. FRAMES


Optical carrier designations

OC-1/STS-1 51.84 Mbps

OC-3155.52 Mbps

OC-12622.08 Mbps

OC-48 2,488.32 Mbps

OC-192 9,953.28 Mbps

OC-768 39,813.12 Mbps

Optical Carrier Designations


Sonet

digital hierarchy based on Optical Carriers (OC’s)

maximum t-speed of 39.81312 Gbps

defines a base rate of 51.84 Mbps = STS-1s

OC’s are multiples of the t-speed

defines Synchronous Transport Signals – STS’s and STS-3c = OC 3 = 155 Mbps

SONET


Overheads

SONET carries 8,000 frames per second, 810 characters in size (36 characters of overhead and 774 characters of payload

Section Overhead includes:

STS channel performance monitoring

Data channels for management such as channel monitoring, channel administration, maintenance functions and channel provisioning

Performs functions necessary for repeaters, add drop multiplexers (ADMs), termination gear, and digital access and cross connect systems (DACS)

Line Overhead includes:

STS-1c performance monitoring

Data channel management, payload pointers, protection switching information, line alarm signals, and far-end failure to receive indicators

In addition to these overheads there are also Path overheads

Overheads


Optical wave division

WDM multiplies (up to 32 more times) the capacity of existing fibre spans – cross (wide)-band, narrow band or dense band transmission options

DWDM Red waves 1550, 1552, 1555 & 1557 nm

DWDM Blue waves 1529, 1530, 1532& 1533 nm

Now can support 100 wavelengths with each wavelength supporting a channel rate of up to 10 Gbps

Optical Wave Division


High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

Local Area Access Architectures

1-Meg or xDSL Modem Services in Communities

Alternate Carrier

MANs also Interface

Central CO for Access Nodes

Access Routers

Off Ramps -WDM

PVCs – on carriers network

1000 Mb GbE

GbE

ATM Network – OC12-OC48

Router

1

M

M

OC-12

ATM

GbE

1

M

M

Grid Access

Node – GigaPoP?

System Processors and

Interfaces 100 Mb- 1Gb

  • All PVCs (SVCs or PVPs) usually terminate on 1 or more Centralized Access Routers

  • Most carrier PVCs are UBR with access at minimum OC48 speeds 2.4 Gb/sec

  • Backbone may be optically switched with P.O.S on wavelengths using TCP/IP as the main transport protocol but getting direct access to it is the key!

  • Direct access will also minimize latency and the synergistic effects of latency


High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

What does a 5 minute average measurement

show us with MRTG?


High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

IP

IP

PPP

PPP

PPPOE

L2TP

PPPOE

L2TP

Ethernet

Ethernet

Ethernet

Ethernet

Ethernet

Ethernet

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

LLC/SNAP(1483)

LLC/SNAP(1483)

LLC/SNAP(1483)

LLC/SNAP(1483)

AAL5

AAL5

AAL5

AAL5

SAR

SAR

SAR

SAR

ATM

ATM

ATM

ATM

ATM

SONET/SDH

10BaseT

10BaseT

SONET/SDH

SONET/SDH

SONET/SDH

1MM

QAM

1MM

QAM

SONET/SDH

Network Protocol Stack Models (WAN with IP)

Ethernet

Switch

(Catalyst)

Network

(ATM)

LAC

(SMS-1000)

1MM

DBIC

1MM

PC

LNS


Making a call

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC as

a carrier such as Bell

or METROnet with core gear

LS1010 and 7200 series for

ATM and IP routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Making a Call

WRH Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Making a call1

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC

as a carrier such

as a Bell or METROnet

with core gear LS1010 and

7200 series for ATM and

IP routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Making a Call

WRH Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Making a call2

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC as

a carrier such as Bell

or METROnet with

core gear LS1010 and 7200

series for ATM and

IP routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Making a Call

WRH

Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Codec negotiation

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC as

a carrier such as a Bell

or METROnet with core gear

LS1010 and 7200 series for

ATM and IP routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Codec Negotiation

WRH

Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Successful call

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC as

a carrier such as a Bell

or METROnet with core gear

LS1010 and 7200 series for

ATM and IP routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Successful Call

WRH

Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Making an isdn call

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC

as a carrier such as a Bell

or METROnet with core gear

LS1010 and 7200 series for

ATM and IP routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Making an ISDN Call

WRH

Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Making an isdn call1

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC as

a carrier such as a Bell

or METROnet with core

gear LS1010 and 7200

series for ATM and IP

routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Making an ISDN Call

WRH

Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Making an isdn call2

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC as

a carrier such as a Bell

or METROnet with core

gear LS1010 and 7200

series for ATM and IP

routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Making an ISDN Call

WRH

Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Making an isdn call3

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC

as a carrier such as a Bell

or METROnet with core gear

LS1010 and 7200 series for

ATM and IP routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Making an ISDN Call

WRH

Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor


Codec negotiation1

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC

as a carrier such as a

Bell or METROnet with core

gear LS1010 and 7200 series

for ATM and IP routing

WRH

Western

V-Room

V-Room

Campus

LE25

LE25

HDGH

LE25

OC3

S

D

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

IBM 8274 9 slot

FVC V-room

OC3

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

DEC Gigaswitch

of

18 gbps

Windsor

Video

Television

Codec Negotiation

Leamington District

Memorial Hospital

Centrex module


Successful call1

Video

Video

Television

Television

WEDnet uses WUC as

a carrier such as a Bell

or METROnet with core gear

LS1010 and 7200 series for

ATM and IP routing

V-Room

V-Room

LE25

LE25

S

D

IBM 8274 9 slot

Successful Call

WRH

Western

Campus

HDGH

LE25

OC3

FVC VGATE

25 Mb ATM

LE 25 SMF

FVC V-room

P-Tel Video

Dial - up

Shared

H.261 ISDN

University

of

Windsor

Video

Television

Leamington

District Memorial

Hospital

Centrex module


High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

AT&T and Regional Gigapop

IP Architecture

CA*net3

AT&T Gigapop

iBGP

BGP

ATM

/w SVC

AT&T Route

Server

iBGP

Regional IGP

OCRINet /wOHI

AT&T

Network

SureNet

WEDNet

iBGP

iBGP

ATM interconnectivity

Regional IGP

Regional IGP

Router / RFC1577 Client

CA*Net AS iBGP

LAN interconnect

AT&T AS iBGP

Bhavani Krishnan


High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

From LAN to WAN

This server and control facility houses multiple Digital Alpha, DEL PowerEdge, IBM Netfinity and RS/6000 servers. Located at a single campus the facility supports 400 nodes locally and 800 nodes 7.5 km away. SVCs are provisioned on separate PVPs for security and LANE services provide VLANs for ADT systems, pharmacy, and document imaging. The systems use GUI interfaces to assist visual references for end-users


High speed optical networks an evolution of dependency november 2 2001

In the Ideal World!

  • Dark fibre between nodes

  • Homogenous switched architecture with minimal breakouts

  • Low latency at all layers

  • We will likely be dealing with something much different, unless there is about $500 M available to support and sustain the network side of grids to help minimize the synergistic effects of latency on applications

  • Latency studies are important and the synergy of latency effects are important from the processor to the I/O architectures, to the network layers

  • If commercial carriers are to be used anywhere in the path, latency should become a factor for selecting them as providers

  • Effective monitoring and support of the extranet is important to the success of a GRID unless the GRID middleware can accommodate different types of latency and the variation that exists

  • Internet routing is “best effort” with variable paths every time – not likely the best GRID platform

  • Research networks like CA*net 3, Internet 2, ORION, etc. are the next best bet! However, the last mile issue still has to be addressed.


The future

“It is conceivable that future Internet networks may be aseamless composite of a variety of transport protocols. AnOptical Internet might be used for high volume, best effortscomputer to computer traffic, while IP over ATM might be usedto support VPNs and mission critical IP networks, while IP overSONET would be used to aggregate and deliver traditional IPnetwork services that are delivered via T1s, DS3s, and Gigabit uplinks”

From, Dr. Bill St. Arnaud, CANARIE

The Future


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