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objectives. UNIT. 1. The Sentence. 1. To understand that a sentence expresses a complete thought. 2. To recognize the different kinds of sentences. 3. To identify the eight parts of speech. 4. To write sentences effectively. Section 1 A Sentence .

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The sentence

objectives

UNIT

1

The Sentence

1.To understand that a sentence expresses a complete thought.

2.To recognize the different kinds of sentences.

3.To identify the eight parts of speech.

4.To write sentences effectively.

UNIT 1


Section 1 a sentence

Section 1A Sentence

  • A sentence expresses a complete thought through a series or group of words.

  • A simple sentence consists of two important parts, the subject (a noun or pronoun) and the verb.

  • The subject noun is a person, place, or thing spoken of, and the verb is the word that tells what the subject does or is.

  • A group of words is not a sentence unless it contains both a subject and a verb.

UNIT 1


Section 1 the sentence

Section 1The Sentence

  • Alexa went to the trade show.

  • Alexawent to the trade show.

    Analysis

  • Alexa—person spoken of—subject

  • went—tells what Alexa did—verb

UNIT 1


Section 1 the sentence1

Section 1The Sentence

example

  • Anthony in his car at the toll booth.

  • Anthony in his car at the toll booth.

    Analysis

  • Anthony—person spoken of—subject

    • There is no verb to tell what Anthony did—the sentence is incomplete.

    • A verb such as drove, sat, or waited is needed to complete the sentence.

      Correct

  • Anthony waited in his car at the toll booth.

UNIT 1


Section 1 the sentence compound subjects take plural verbs

Section 1The Sentence—Compound Subjects Take Plural Verbs

  • Grace and Tom walk two miles every day.

  • Grace and Tomwalk two miles every day.

    Analysis

  • Grace, Tom—persons spoken of—subject

  • walk—tells what Grace and Tom do—verb

UNIT 1


Section 2 kinds of sentences

Section 2Kinds of Sentences

  • Declarative

  • Interrogative

  • Exclamatory

  • Imperative

UNIT 1


Section 2 declarative sentence

Section 2Declarative Sentence

  • The declarative sentence makes a statement.

  • It ends with a period.

    Examples:

    • The band played many new songs.

    • Jennifer Lopez sings with a band.

UNIT 1


Section 2 interrogative sentence

Section 2Interrogative Sentence

  • The interrogative sentence asks a question.

  • It ends with a question mark.

    Examples:

    • Are you looking for a job?

    • How long have you been in school?

UNIT 1


Section 2 exclamatory sentence

Section 2Exclamatory Sentence

  • The exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, disbelief, or deep feeling.

  • It ends with an exclamation point.

    Examples

    • That was a great movie!

    • Watch out for that runaway truck!

UNIT 1


Section 2 imperative sentence

Section 2Imperative Sentence

  • The imperative sentence gives a command, requests someone to do something, or begs.

  • It usually ends with a period, but a strong command may end with an exclamation point.

  • The subject you is often omitted, but understood.

UNIT 1


Section 2 imperative sentence1

Section 2Imperative Sentence

example

  • Listen to the teacher. (you understood)

  • Keep your hand down. (you understood)

  • Look at these new Web sites.

  • Don't touch that delete button! (imperative and exclamatory)

UNIT 1


Section 3 parts of speech

Section 3Parts of Speech

  • Most of the words that are used to make sentences can be sorted into eight classifications called parts of speech.

  • Some words can be more than one part of speech depending on their position or use in a sentence.

UNIT 1


Section 3 a nouns a noun names a person a place a thing a concept or an activity

Section 3-ANouns -A noun names a person, a place, a thing, a concept, or an activity.

  • Michael Jordan played basketball in Chicago.

  • Michael Jordan played basketball in Chicago.

    Analysis

  • Michael Jordan—names a person—noun

  • basketball—names a thing—noun

  • Chicago—names a place—noun

UNIT 1


Section 3 a nouns

Section 3-ANouns

example

  • Hope springs eternal.

  • Hope springs eternal.

    Analysis

  • Hope—names a concept—noun

UNIT 1


Section 3 a nouns1

Section 3-ANouns

example

  • Cross-training keeps Sonya and Chris fit.

  • Cross-training keeps Sonya and Chris fit.

    Analysis

  • Cross-training—names an activity—noun

  • Sonya and Chris—name people—nouns

UNIT 1


Section 3 b pronouns a pronoun is a word used as a substitute for a noun

Section 3-BPronouns – A pronoun is a word used as a substitute for a noun.

  • He ran to catch the bus.

  • He ran to catch the bus.

    Analysis

  • He—used in place of the name of the individual—pronoun

UNIT 1


Section 3 b pronouns

Section 3-BPronouns

example

  • They visited the Hawaiian Islands.

  • They visited the Hawaiian Islands.

    Analysis

  • They—used in place of the names of the individuals—pronoun

UNIT 1


Section 3 b pronouns1

Section 3-BPronouns

example

  • The school admitted them.

  • The school admitted them.

    Analysis

  • them—used in place of the names of the individuals—pronoun

UNIT 1


Section 3 c verbs a verb tells what the subject does or is or what happens to it

Section 3-CVerbs -A verb tells what the subject does or is or what happens to it.

  • It can make a statement, ask a question, or give a command.

  • Nichole Walter wrote an interesting term paper.

  • Nichole Walter wrote an interesting term paper.

    Analysis

  • wrote—tells what the subject, Nichole Walter, did—verb

UNIT 1


Section 3 c verbs

Section 3-CVerbs

example

  • Is Maui one of the Hawaiian Islands?

  • Is Maui one of the Hawaiian Islands?

    Analysis

  • Is—asks a question about the subject, Maui—verb

UNIT 1


Section 3 c verbs1

Section 3-CVerbs

example

  • Handle that vase carefully!

  • Handle that vase carefully!

    Analysis

  • Handle—gives a command to the understood subject, you (You handle that vase carefully!)—verb

UNIT 1


Section 3 d adjectives

Section 3-DAdjectives

  • An adjective modifies (describes) a noun or a pronoun.

  • It answers such questions as these: How many? How big? What kind? Which?

  • A, an, and the are adjectives.

  • Definite (the) and indefinite (a, an) adjectives are referred to as articles.

UNIT 1


Section 3 d adjectives1

Section 3-DAdjectives

example

  • The three sisters started a new business.

  • Thethree sisters started anew business.

    Analysis

  • The—definite adjective

  • three—tells how many sisters—adjective

  • a—indefinite adjective

  • new—tells what kind of business—adjective

UNIT 1


Section 3 d adjectives2

Section 3-DAdjectives

example

  • The veteran coach wears blue hats.

  • Theveteran coach wears blue hats.

    Analysis

  • The—definite adjective

  • veteran—tells what kind of coach—adjective

  • blue—tells what kind of hats—adjective

UNIT 1


Section 3 e adverbs

Section 3-E Adverbs

  • An adverb modifies (describes) a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

  • It answers such questions as these: When? Where? How?

  • Most words ending in ly are adverbs.

  • Five common exceptions are friendly, lively, lonely, lovely, and ugly, which are adjectives.

UNIT 1


Section 3 e adverbs1

Section 3-E Adverbs

example

  • Sandy walked quickly in the hot sand.

  • Sandy walked quickly in the hot sand.

    Analysis

  • quickly—modifies the verb, walked, by telling how—adverb

UNIT 1


Section 3 e adverbs2

Section 3-E Adverbs

example

  • The moving van traveled south from San Francisco.

  • The moving van traveled south from San Francisco.

    Analysis

  • south—modifies the verb, traveled, by telling where or in what direction—adverb

UNIT 1


Section 3 e adverbs3

Section 3-E Adverbs

example

  • Anne seldom missed a basketball game.

  • Anne seldom missed a basketball game.

    Analysis

  • seldom—modifies the verb, missed, by telling when—adverb

UNIT 1


Section 3 f prepositions

Section 3-FPrepositions

  • A preposition shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence.

UNIT 1


Section 3 f prepositions1

Section 3-F Prepositions

example

  • The police chased the thief around the house and into the bushes.

  • The police chased the thief around the house and into the bushes.

    Analysis

  • around—shows relationship between house and chased

  • into—shows relationship between bushes and chased—preposition

UNIT 1


Section 3 f prepositions2

Section 3-FPrepositions

example

  • The election established the winner by a majority of the votes.

  • The election established the winner by a majority of the votes.

    Analysis

  • by—shows relationship between majority and winner—preposition

  • of—shows relationship between votes and majority—preposition

UNIT 1


Section 3 g conjunctions

Section 3-GConjunctions

  • A conjunction joins words, phrases (groups of related words that lack a subject or a verb), and clauses (groups of words containing a subject and a verb).

UNIT 1


Section 3 g conjunctions1

Section 3-GConjunctions

example

  • Mysteries and comedies are my favorite television shows.

  • Mysteries and comedies are my favorite television shows.

    Analysis

  • and—joins the words Mysteries and comedies—conjunction

UNIT 1


Section 3 g conjunctions2

Section 3-GConjunctions

example

  • Was your aunt the senator or governor of your state?

  • Was your aunt the senator or governor of your state?

    Analysis

  • or—joins the words senator and governor—conjunction

UNIT 1


Section 3 g conjunctions3

Section 3-GConjunctions

example

  • The parents of the players and the students left the dressing room.

  • The parents of the players and the students left the dressing room.

    Analysis

  • and—joins the phrases The parents of the players and the students—conjunction

UNIT 1


Section 3 g conjunctions4

Section 3-GConjunctions

example

  • When I entered the garage, I noticed the flat tire.

  • When I entered the garage, I noticed the flat tire.

    Analysis

  • When—introduces and joins the clause When I entered the garage with the clause I noticed the flat tire—conjunction

UNIT 1


Section 3 h interjections

Section 3-HInterjections

  • An interjection is a word or words used to express strong and sudden feeling—surprise, fear, suspense, anger, love, joy, and other emotions.

  • Words such as wow, ouch, hurrah, oh, and hooray are interjections.

  • Words such as help, beware, and stop (usually verbs) may be used as interjections.

UNIT 1


Section 3 h interjections1

Section 3-HInterjections

example

  • Ouch! That match burned my hand.

  • Ouch! That match burned my hand.

    Analysis

  • Ouch!—expresses sudden feeling—interjection

UNIT 1


Section 3 h interjections2

Section 3-HInterjections

example

  • Wow! I finally found the perfect job.

  • Wow! I finally found the perfect job.

    Analysis

  • Wow!—expresses sudden feeling—interjection

UNIT 1


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