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Questions. What is meant by westernization? Why is westernization critical to the success of Russia? What groups of people were resistant to changing Russia? What are some of the changes PTG made to westernize Russia?. Peter the Great. Russia\'s Absolute Monarch. Peter the Great.

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questions
Questions
  • What is meant by westernization?
  • Why is westernization critical to the success of Russia?
  • What groups of people were resistant to changing Russia?
  • What are some of the changes PTG made to westernize Russia?
slide2

Peter the Great

Russia\'s Absolute Monarch

peter the great
Peter the Great
  • Born in 1672
  • Began almost immediately to consolidate power and to increase his power
  • The Russian Church and the nobles, called Boyars, were two prime targets
  • Major goal was the westernization of Russia
russia before peter the great
Russia Before Peter the Great
  • Medley of peoples who spoke a Slavic language– Difficult to unify
  • In spite of geographic location, the Russians were focusing their attention to the east, and not on Europe to the west
  • Russians inhabited the land from the edge of the modern Baltic states to the pacific ocean
  • Russia lacked a warm-water or an ice-free port which hindered trade and communication with Europe
3 reasons russia needed to be westernized
3 Reasons Russia Needed to be Westernized
  • Russia was Eastern Orthodox Christian, Not Roman Catholic
    • Influence was Greek (eastern), not Latin (western)
    • Different alphabet (Cyrillic)
    • радиатор
    • Different culture, customs etc
    • Eastern Church did not promote charity or education like the Western Church and had little time for humanity
slide6

Church was very superstitious & opposed learning as “a spiritual sin”

  • Without Church promotion of learning even basic arithmetic was hardly understood
slide7

Mongol influence of about 250 years:

    • Women wore veils; men wore long flowing robes and beards
    • Customs were crude & brutality was prevalent– Life was cheap
    • Russia developed the idea of strong man rule which would last into the 20th century
    • Attention was focused to the east and Asia
slide8

Geography prevented effective trade and exchange of ideas with the rest of Europe

    • Russia was not ready or able to receive the Renaissance and missed out
    • The need for a warm-water port or ice-free port was becoming even greater as time went on
westernization modernization
Westernization & Modernization
  • Peter needed to use European civilization to create a stronger Russian army that could stand up to the West as well as to obtain his “window on the West”
    • Needed to defend against the Poles, Turks, & Swedes
    • Needed access to Black Sea as well as access to the Baltic Sea
slide14

Unlike Western Europe, serfdom still existed in Russia and was very widespread

    • Serfs could be bought and sold like slaves
    • Serfs could even be killed without punishment for the killer!!
    • Without the free movement of people, the nation could not become more urbanized and then industrialized
regroup
Regroup
  • Why did Russia need to be modernized?
  • What was PTG’s ultimate goal for Russia?
  • Which group of people had a negative, long-term impact on the development of Russia?
peter s reforms
Peter’s Reforms
  • Peter had an inquisitive mind and began to study things like sailing with foreigners living in Moscow
  • In 1697 Peter began his year-long “Grand Embassy” to Western Europe to learn as much as he could so he could strengthen Russia and her army
slide17

The Grand Embassy took Peter to Holland, Venice & England

    • He visited almost every factory, museum & printing press he could to find out how Russia could do the same things
    • Peter hired hundreds of technicians to work in Russia to help strengthen Russia
slide18

Peter made the following changes to Russia once he returned to Russia:

    • The Russian Church, which had opposed all learning and change came under Peter’s direct control
    • All non-serfs were required to serve the state in the government or in the military and nobility did not guarantee any high positions
slide19

Peter created a professional army that was drilled by European soldiers with European weapons

  • Taxes were raised to pay for the army and taxes were put on items such as beards, land, inns, mills, leather, coffins, meat & the right to marry
  • Encouraged industrialization and provided government money for companies to start making products the army needed
slide20

Eastern fashions were prohibited and men could not wear beards

  • A newspaper was created which helped to increase literacy and exchange ideas
  • Russians were sent abroad to study
  • A book of etiquette was published that encouraged Russians not to spit on the floor, scratch themselves or to wear hats indoors
slide21

Peter built his new capital, St. Petersburg, on Swedish lands on the Baltic Sea and forced nobles to move there

  • His new capital provided the ice-free port that Russia had desired for so long
results of westernization
Results of Westernization
  • Peter’s own son and heir to the throne was tortured and executed for opposing Peter’s changes
  • Peter, by trying to gain more power, left a legacy of strong man rule and prohibited the development of a democratic government prior to 1992
  • The peasant stayed outside looking in while the nobility continued to enjoy a privileged life– this gap between classes would have dire consequences for Russia’s future
regroup1
Regroup
  • What were some of the reforms of PTG?
  • What happened to his reforms after his death?
  • Which groups were most opposed to PTG’s reforms? Why?
  • What do you think the long-term impact of not reforming Russia would be?
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