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Animals Eat Food. Chap 41 (nutrition). Overview: The Need to Feed. Food is taken in, taken apart, and taken up in the process of animal nutrition In general, animals fall into three categories: Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and algae) Carnivores eat other animals

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Animals eat food
Animals Eat Food

Chap 41 (nutrition)


Overview the need to feed
Overview: The Need to Feed

  • Food is taken in, taken apart, and taken up in the process of animal nutrition

  • In general, animals fall into three categories:

    • Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and algae)

    • Carnivores eat other animals

    • Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter



Concept 41 1 an animal s diet must supply chemical energy organic molecules and essential nutrients
Concept 41.1: An animal’s diet must supply chemical energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • An animal’s diet provides chemical energy, which is converted into ATP and powers processes in the body

  • Animals need a source of organic carbon and organic nitrogen in order to construct organic molecules

  • Essential nutrients are required by cells and must be obtained from dietary sources


Essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • There are four classes of essential nutrients:

    • Essential amino acids

    • Essential fatty acids

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-2 energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Essential amino acids for adults

Beans and otherlegumes

Methionine

Valine

Threonine

Phenylalanine

Leucine

Corn (maize)and other grains

Isoleucine

Tryptophan

Lysine


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-3 energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients


Vitamins
Vitamins energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • Vitamins are organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts

  • 13 vitamins essential to humans have been identified

  • Vitamins are grouped into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble


Animals eat food

Table 41-1 energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients


Animals eat food

Table 41-2 energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients


Undernourishment
Undernourishment energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • An undernourished individual will

    • Use up stored fat and carbohydrates

    • Break down its own proteins

    • Lose muscle mass

    • Suffer protein deficiency of the brain

    • Die or suffer irreversible damage

  • Malnourishment can cause deformities, disease, and death

  • Malnourishment can be corrected by changes to a diet


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-4 energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients


Animals eat food

Suspension Feeders energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • Many aquatic animals are suspension feeders, which sift small food particles from the water


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-6a energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Baleen

Humpback whale, a suspension feeder


Animals eat food

Substrate Feeders energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • Substrate feeders are animals that live in or on their food source


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-6b energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Leaf miner caterpillar,a substrate feeder

Caterpillar Feces


Animals eat food

Fluid Feeders energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • Fluid feeders suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-6c energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Mosquito, a fluid feeder


Animals eat food

Bulk Feeders energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • Bulk feeders eat relatively large pieces of food


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-6d energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Rock python, a bulk feeder


Animals eat food

  • Digestion energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrientsis the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough to absorb

    • In chemical digestion, the process of enzymatic hydrolysis splits bonds in molecules with the addition of water

  • Absorption is uptake of nutrients by body cells

  • Elimination is the passage of undigested material out of the digestive compartment


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-7 energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Smallmolecules

Piecesof food

Chemical digestion(enzymatic hydrolysis)

Nutrientmoleculesenter bodycells

Mechanicaldigestion

Undigestedmaterial

Food

Ingestion

Digestion

Elimination

Absorption

2

4

1

3


Digestion types
Digestion types energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

  • In intracellular digestion, food particles are engulfed by endocytosis and digested within food vacuoles

  • Extracellular digestion is the breakdown of food particles outside of cells

  • It occurs in compartments that are continuous with the outside of the animal’s body


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-8 energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Tentacles

Gastrovascularcavity

Food

Mouth

Epidermis

Gastrodermis


Animals eat food

  • Animals with simple body plans have a energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrientsgastrovascular cavity that functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients

  • More complex animals have a digestive tube with two openings, a mouth and an anus

  • This digestive tube is called a complete digestive tract or an alimentary canal

  • It can have specialized regions that carry out digestion and absorption in a stepwise fashion


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-9a energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Crop

Gizzard

Intestine

Esophagus

Pharynx

Anus

Mouth

Typhlosole

Lumen of intestine

(a) Earthworm


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-9c energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients

Stomach

Gizzard

Intestine

Mouth

Esophagus

Crop

Anus

(c) Bird


Animals eat food
Concept 41.3: Organs specialized for sequential stages of food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • The mammalian digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and accessory glands that secrete digestive juices through ducts

  • Mammalian accessory glands are the salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder

  • Food is pushed along by peristalsis, rhythmic contractions of muscles in the wall of the canal

  • Valves called sphincters regulate the movement of material between compartments


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-10a food processing form the mammalian digestive system

Tongue

Sphincter

Oral cavity

Salivary glands

Pharynx

Esophagus

Sphincter

Liver

Stomach

Ascendingportion oflarge intestine

Gall-bladder

Duodenum ofsmall intestine

Pancreas

Smallintestine

Smallintestine

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

Appendix

Cecum


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-10b food processing form the mammalian digestive system

Salivaryglands

Mouth

Esophagus

Gall-bladder

Stomach

Smallintestine

Liver

Pancreas

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system


The oral cavity pharynx and esophagus
The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • The first stage of digestion is mechanical and takes place in the oral cavity

  • Salivary glands deliver saliva to lubricate food

  • Teeth chew food into smaller particles that are exposed to salivary amylase, initiating breakdown of glucose polymers


Animals eat food

  • The tongue shapes food into a food processing form the mammalian digestive systembolus and provides help with swallowing

  • The region we call our throat is the pharynx, a junction that opens to both the esophagus and the trachea (windpipe)

  • The trachea leads to the lungs

  • The esophagus conducts food from the pharynx down to the stomach by peristalsis

  • Swallowing causes the epiglottis to block entry to the trachea, and the bolus is guided by the larynx, the upper part of the respiratory tract

  • Coughing occurs when the swallowing reflex fails and food or liquids reach the windpipe


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-11-3 food processing form the mammalian digestive system

Food

Epiglottisup

Tongue

Epiglottisup

Pharynx

Esophagealsphinctercontracted

Epiglottisdown

Glottis

Glottisdownand open

Esophagealsphinctercontracted

Larynx

Trachea

Esophagus

Esophagealsphincterrelaxed

Glottis upand closed

Relaxedmuscles

Tolungs

Tostomach

Contractedmuscles

Relaxedmuscles

Sphincterrelaxed

Stomach


Digestion in the stomach
Digestion in the Stomach food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • The stomach stores food and secretes gastric juice, which converts a meal to acid chyme

  • The esophagus conducts food from the pharynx down to the stomach by peristalsis

  • Swallowing causes the epiglottis to block entry to the trachea, and the bolus is guided by the larynx, the upper part of the respiratory tract

  • Coughing occurs when the swallowing reflex fails and food or liquids reach the windpipe


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-12 food processing form the mammalian digestive system

Esophagus

Sphincter

Stomach

Sphincter

5 µm

Small intestine

Folds ofepithelialtissue

Interior surfaceof stomach

Epithelium

3

Pepsinogen and HClare secreted.

1

Pepsinogen

Pepsin

2

HCl

Gastric gland

2

HCl convertspepsinogen to pepsin.

1

3

Pepsin activatesmore pepsinogen.

Mucus cells

H+

Cl–

Chief cells

Chief cell

Parietal cells

Parietal cell


Digestion in the small intestine
Digestion in the Small Intestine food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • The small intestine is the longest section of the alimentary canal

  • It is the major organ of digestion and absorption


Pancreatic secretions
Pancreatic Secretions food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • The pancreas produces proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, protein-digesting enzymes that are activated after entering the duodenum

  • Its solution is alkaline and neutralizes the acidic chyme


Bile production by the liver
Bile Production by the Liver food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • In the small intestine, bile aids in digestion and absorption of fats

  • Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder


Secretions of the small intestine
Secretions of the Small Intestine food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • The epithelial lining of the duodenum, called the brush border, produces several digestive enzymes

  • Enzymatic digestion is completed as peristalsis moves the chyme and digestive juices along the small intestine

  • Most digestion occurs in the duodenum; the jejunum and ileum function mainly in absorption of nutrients and water


Absorption in the small intestine
Absorption in the Small Intestine food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • The small intestine has a huge surface area, due to villiand microvillithat are exposed to the intestinal lumen

  • The enormous microvillar surface greatly increases the rate of nutrient absorption


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-15 food processing form the mammalian digestive system

Microvilli (brushborder) at apical(lumenal) surface

Vein carrying bloodto hepatic portal vein

Lumen

Bloodcapillaries

Epithelialcells

Basal surface

Muscle layers

Largecircularfolds

Epithelial cells

Villi

Lacteal

Key

Lymphvessel

Nutrientabsorption

Villi

Intestinal wall


Animals eat food

  • Each food processing form the mammalian digestive systemvillus contains a network of blood vessels and a small lymphatic vessel called a lacteal

  • After glycerol and fatty acids are absorbed by epithelial cells, they are recombined into fats within these cells

  • These fats are mixed with cholesterol and coated with protein, forming molecules called chylomicrons, which are transported into lacteals


Absorption in the large intestine
Absorption in the Large Intestine food processing form the mammalian digestive system

  • The colon of the large intestine is connected to the small intestine

  • The cecumaids in the fermentation of plant material and connects where the small and large intestines meet

  • The human cecum has an extension called the appendix,which plays a very minor role in immunity


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-17 food processing form the mammalian digestive system


Animals eat food


Animals eat food

  • The colon houses strains of the bacterium entered the alimentary canalEscherichia coli, some of which produce vitamins

  • Feces are stored in the rectum until they can be eliminated

  • Two sphincters between the rectum and anus control bowel movements


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-18 entered the alimentary canal

Incisors

Molars

Canines

Premolars

(a) Carnivore

(b) Herbivore

(c) Omnivore


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-19 entered the alimentary canal

Small intestine

Stomach

Small intestine

Cecum

Colon(largeintestine)

Carnivore

Herbivore


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-20 entered the alimentary canal

Rumen

Reticulum

1

2

Intestine

Esophagus

Abomasum

Omasum

4

3


Overnourishment and obesity
Overnourishment entered the alimentary canal and Obesity

  • Overnourishment causes obesity, which results from excessive intake of food energy with the excess stored as fat

  • Obesity contributes to diabetes (type 2), cancer of the colon and breasts, heart attacks, and strokes


Animals eat food

Fig. 41-24a entered the alimentary canal

EXPERIMENT

Obese mouse with mutantob gene (left) next to wild-type mouse.


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