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Recording Arts…Audio Introduction. Fall 2014. Range of Human Hearing 20 Hz – 20,000 Hz or 20 Hz – 20 kHz. Range of Hearing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2G9Q-r2leyw Ear Training http ://homerecording.about.com/od/homestudiobasics/a/ test_tones.htm The Mosquito Hearing Device

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Range of Human Hearing

20 Hz – 20,000 Hz

or

20 Hz – 20 kHz


Range of Hearing

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2G9Q-r2leyw

Ear Training

http://homerecording.about.com/od/homestudiobasics/a/test_tones.htm

The Mosquito Hearing Device

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoa8eSf2NgQ&NR=1


Sound Waves

• Sound is a longitudinal wave which can travel through gases (air), liquids (under water) or solids (the Earth).

• Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. In space no one can hear you scream.

• When an object vibrates (moves backwards and forwards) in air it produces sound waves.


Sound Waves

  • The sound wave will have the same frequency as the frequency of the vibrating object which made it.

  • The speed of a sound wave depends on the density of the medium (substance) through which it is traveling.

  • Sound will travel faster through the Earth than under water, and faster under water than it will in air.


The Speed of Sound

~344 meters per second

or

1130 feet per second

at

70 degrees F

Sound is a very slow energy, much slower than Light


Sonic BOOM!

This is what happens when you exceed the speed of sound…a visual and audible event…

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6o0zmafxTmE


Loudness and Pitch

• The loudness of sound depends on the amplitude of the wave. The bigger the amplitude, the louder the sound.

• The pitch of sound (how high or low the note is) depends on the frequency of the wave. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch.



Frequency:

Frequency is defined as "the number of complete cycles (complete waves) in one second".

Hertz is the unit of frequency (symbol Hz).

1 Hertz = 1 cycle per second.


Wavelength

  • Wavelength = Speed of Sound / Cycles per second

  • Vocalist sings the note A at 440 Hz.

    • 1130 / 440 = 2.56 ft or 30.72 inches

  • Low E on Electronic Bass ~ 40 Hz

    • 1130 / 40 = 28.25 ft or 339 inches

  • Screaming Guitar Lead @ 1175 Hz

    • 1130 / 1175 = .96 ft or 11.5 inches


Decibels AUDIO

A logarithmic unit to measure volume/sound pressure..

  • 0 db is the threshold of hearing

  • 10 dbis 10 times greater

  • 20 dbis 100 times greater

  • 30 dbis a 1000 times greater


  • Threshold of Hearing (TOH) 0 dB

  • Rustling Leaves 10 dB

  • Whisper 20 dB

  • Normal Conversation 60 dB

  • Busy Street Traffic 70 dB

  • Vacuum Cleaner80 dB

  • Large Orchestra 98 dB

  • Level Front Rows of Rock Concert 110 dB

  • Threshold of Pain 130 dB

  • Military Jet Takeoff 140 dB

  • Instant Perforation of Eardrum 160 dB


  • Vaccum Cleaner 80db

  • Rock Concert 110 db

  • Difference of 30 db or 1000 times louder

  • Therefore the average rock concert is equal to listening to 1000 vacuum cleaners running at the same time


  • What is the speed of sound?

    1,130 feet per second

  • What is the range of human hearing?

    20 Hz – 20 KHz (20,000 Hz)

  • When you ear hears an increase of 10db in a sound, how many times louder did that sound get?

    10x

  • What if there was an increase of 20db?

    100x

  • What about 30db?

    1,000x


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