Measurement of the non observed economy
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MEASUREMENT OF THE NON-OBSERVED ECONOMY:. Exhaustiveness Adjustments in Slovenia for the year 2002, using Eurostat’s Tabular Approach. Andrej Flajs (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia). GDP 1995-2002 revision Exhaustiveness adjustments by output GDP – Eurostat’s Tabular Approach

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MEASUREMENT OF THE NON-OBSERVED ECONOMY:

Exhaustiveness Adjustments in Slovenia for the year 2002, using Eurostat’s Tabular Approach

Andrej Flajs

(Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia)


  • GDP 1995-2002 revision

  • Exhaustiveness adjustments by output GDP – Eurostat’s Tabular Approach

    • By type

    • By institutional sectors

    • By activities


GDP 1995-2002 revision (1)

  • Methodology ESA 1995;

  • Complete data sources by institutional sectors at unit level;

  • VAT, Labour Costs Survey 2000/2004, Economic Accounts for Agriculture;

  • New accounting system for public sector – general government and market producers at unit level;

  • Agreement with the Ministry of Finance and the Tax Office at the end of 2002: unit level data for VAT reports, S.14 production units and households income tax annual report;


GDP 1995-2002 revision (2)

  • Output GDP – 140 activities separately by institutional sectors/data sources, first annual estimate in June (t + 6 months);

  • Supply/use tables, 250 product (t + 28 months), current prices (project for constant prices);

  • GDP revision effects: on average +6.5% GDP level, of which 2.75 percentage points methodology and 3.75 exhaustiveness adjustments;

  • Total exhaustiveness adjustments 6.6% of GDP (7.5% 2002), without illegal production (0.6% of GDP 2002).


Main types of exhaustivenes adjustments of 2000-2002 GDP


N6 Producers deliberately misreporting

1.7% of GDP and 20.8% of total, important for small units up to 10 employees of S.11 (at the final step of GDP revision) and for all units of S.14.

  • labour force balancing between LFS and national accounts;

  • taxes and particularly VAT audit checks;

  • theoretical VAT calculation and particularly VAT with complicity and VAT without complicity;

  • analysis and comparison of data by enterprise size according to number of employees and between sectors;

  • supply/use balancing.

Current priorities: theoretical VAT calculation for 2001 and 2002, audit checks analyse particularly for VAT.


N7 Other statistical deficiencies

2.5% of GDP and 30.5% of total. All institutional sectors, the most important for S.11 (74.4% of total) and S.14 (17.9% of total). Statistical survey 2005 for S.15 NPISH and leasing companies.

  • cash remunerations for business travel;

  • tips;

  • private use of business cars;

  • food in restaurants and canteens for employees;

  • price adjustments in agriculture due to direct sales to final consumers on farms and at markets and at farm to final consumers;

  • students’ work;

  • food in the army.


Exhaustiveness adjustments by institutional sectors (without N2)


Exhaustiveness adjustments by activities (without N2)


What is not exhaustiveness adjustment by Eurostat? (problem of non-observed economy)


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