Combating environmental factors contributing to childhood obesity
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Combating Environmental factors contributing to Childhood Obesity. Tiffany Lewis, MSCRA, CCRP DrPH-Epidemiology Student Walden University PUBH 8165(2) Instructor: Dr. Raymond Thron Winter 2011. OVERVIEW. Environmental Health Significance of Childhood Obesity Causes of Childhood Obesity

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Combating Environmental factors contributing to Childhood Obesity

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Combating environmental factors contributing to childhood obesity

Combating Environmental factors contributing to Childhood Obesity

Tiffany Lewis, MSCRA, CCRP

DrPH-Epidemiology Student

Walden University

PUBH 8165(2)

Instructor: Dr. Raymond Thron

Winter 2011


Overview

OVERVIEW

  • Environmental Health

  • Significance of Childhood Obesity

  • Causes of Childhood Obesity

  • Environmental Causes of Childhood Obesity

  • Implications of Childhood Obesity

  • Stakeholders

  • How Schools can Improve Environmental Factors Contributing to Obesity

  • How to Accomplish these Goals


Environmental health

Environmental Health

  • Environmental health addresses all factors external to an individual that may harm the health of that person.

  • It is the aim of environmental health to prevent these factors before the development of a disease or ailment.

    Models of Environmental Health

  • Public Health Intervention Model

  • Environmental Stewardship Model

  • Clinical Intervention Model

  • References

  • Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental health (3rd ed.). Boston: Harvard University Press


Significance of childhood obesity

Significance of Childhood Obesity

  • Childhood obesity ranks among the world’s most significant health problems.

  • Picture : Battling childhood weight problems at home. Accessed from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/28/battling-childhood-weight-problems-at-home/

  • References

  • Ogden, C., Flegal, K., Carrol, M., & Johnson, C. (1999-2000). Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association,288(14), 1728-1732.


Significance of childhood obesity cont

Significance of Childhood Obesity cont.

  • Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) above the 95th percentile for age and height (CDC, 2011).

  • Obesity has tripled in the past thirty years (CDC).

  • Eleven percent of children in the US are considered obese (Dehghan, Akhtar-Danesh, & Merchant, 2005).

  • References

  • CDC, (2011). Childhood obesity. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/

  • Dehghan, M., Akhtar-Danesh, N., & Merchant, A. (2005). Childhood obesity prevalence and prevention. Nutrition, 4(24), 1186.


Significance of childhood obesity cont1

Significance of Childhood Obesity cont.

  • Georgia ranks third in childhood obesity in the US.

  • One out of every four third graders, in Georgia is obese, which is five times the average of the entire US population.

  • Georgia’s medical costs associated with childhood obesity soars over $2.5 billion yearly.

  • References

  • College of Education (2011). COA researchers receive grant to reduce childhood obesity. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.coe.uga.edu/news/2010/09/08/coe-researchers-receive-grant-to-reduce-childhood-obesity/


Significance of childhood obesity cont2

Significance of Childhood Obesity cont.

  • Picture: National Conference of State Legislatures accessed from http://www.ncsl.org/?tabid=13877


Causes of childhood obesity

Causes of Childhood Obesity

  • Genetic Dimensions- Leptin deficiency, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, steroids (Dehghan, Akhtar-Danesh, & Merchant, 2005).

  • Behavioral Dimensions- Diet, physical activity (Dehghan, Akhtar-Danesh, & Merchant, 2005).

  • Psychosocial Dimensions- Depression, low self esteem (Schwimmer, Burwinkle, & Varni, 2003).

  • References

  • Dehghan, M., Akhtar-Danesh, N., & Merchant, A. (2005).Childhood obesity prevalence and prevention. Nutrition, 4(24),1186.

  • Schwimmer, J., Burwinkle, T., & Varni, J. (2003)Obese children and their parents report impaired quality of life. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(14), 1813-19


Environmental causes of childhood obesity

Environmental Causes of Childhood Obesity

  • Parents, economics, access to healthy foods and sites for physical activity (Wardle, Guthrie, Birch, & Plomin, 2001; Scott & Wilson, 2011).

  • School nutrition and environmental obstacles

  • Picture: Parents who are ‘too fat to work’ say £20,000 worth of benefits is not enough. Accessed from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/5004431/Family-who-are-too-fat-to-work-say-22000-worth-of-benefits-is-not-enough.html

  • References

  • Wardle, J., Guthrie, C., Birch, L., & Plomin, R., (2001). Food and activity preferences in children of lean and obese parents. International Journal of Obesity, 25(7), 971-977.

  • Scott, A., & Wilson, R. (2011). Upstream ecological risks for overweight and obesity among African American youth in a rural town in the Deep South, 2007. Prev Chronic Dis, 8(1).


Implications of obesity

Implications of Obesity

  • Unresolved childhood obesity may lead to diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, heart disease, asthma, or sleep apnea.

  • Obesity may also lead to psychological disorders such as low self esteem or depression which may ultimately lead to suicide attempts.

  • References

  • Dehghan, M., Akhtar-Danesh, N., & Merchant, A. (2005). Childhood obesity prevalence and prevention. Nutrition, 4(24), 1186.


Implications of obesity cont

Implications of Obesity cont.

  • Overweight children have increases in absenteeism from schools (Geier, Foster, & Womble, 2007).

  • Lower scholastic performances (Sabia, 2007).

  • Increased drop-out rates (Geier, Foster, & Womble, 2007).

  • Lower socioeconomic status into adulthood (Kaestner, Grossman, & Yarnoff, 2009).

  • References

  • Geier, A., Foster, G., Womble L. (2007). The relationship between relative weight and school attendance among elementary school children. Obesity, 15(8), 2157–2161

  • Kaestner, R., Grossman, M., Yarnoff, B. (2009). Economic aspects of obesity. (1st ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Sabia, J. (2007). The effect of body weight on adolescent academic performance. Southern Econ J. 73(4):871–900


Potential stakeholders with respect to childhood obesity

Potential Stakeholderswith respect to Childhood Obesity

  • Schools

  • Federal and state government

  • Parents

  • Healthcare industry

  • Media

  • Food/beverage companies.


How schools can improve environmental factors contributing to obesity

How Schools can Improve Environmental Factors Contributing to Obesity

  • Nutrition

  • Physical activity

  • Walking/Biking

  • Benefits of breakfast

  • Community based teachings

  • Health status report cards

  • Advertisements


How to accomplish these goals

How to Accomplish these Goals

  • Funding

  • Teacher Volunteers

  • Picture: Manatee students, teachers make exercise video to promote good health. Accessed from http://www.baynews9.com/article/news/2010/october/158989/Manatee-students-teachers-make-exercise-video-to-promote-good-health


Summary

Summary

  • Childhood obesity had tripled in the last 30 years.

  • Obese children grow into obese adults.

  • Environmental factors/barriers need to be considered as facilitators to obesity and schools can play a major role in combating these issues that may lead to obesity.

  • Picture: Exercise and fitness for kids. Fun fitness activities to keep kids healthy and fit. Accessed from http://fitnesslines.com/health-tips/exercise-and-fitness-for-kids/

  • References

  • CDC, (2011). Childhood obesity. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/


References

References

  • ABC News Health (2011). Beyonce’ joins Michelle Obama’s initiative to fight childhood obesity. Retrieved April 30th, 2011 from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/beyonce-drops-music-video-fight-childhood-obesity/comments?type=story&id=13482133

  • Arif, A. Rohrer J. (2006).The relationship between obesity, hyperglycemia symptoms, and health-related quality of life among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children and adolescents. BMC Family Practice, 7(13), 1-7.

  • CDC, (2011). Childhood obesity. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/

  • College of Education (2011). COA researchers receive grant to reduce childhood obesity. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.coe.uga.edu/news/2010/09/08/coe-researchers-receive-grant-to-reduce-childhood-obesity/

  • Dehghan, M., Akhtar-Danesh, N., & Merchant, A. (2005). Childhood obesity prevalence and prevention. Nutrition, 4(24), 1186.


References1

References

  • Fallon, E., et al (2005). Health-related quality of life in overweight and non overweight black and white adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics,147, 443-50.

  • Geier, A., Foster, G., Womble L. (2007). The relationship between relative weight and school attendance among elementary schoolchildren. Obesity, 15(8), 2157-2161

  • Georgia Department of Education (2011). School nutrition. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/fbo_nutrition.aspx

  • Kaestner, R., Grossman, M., Yarnoff, B. (2009). Economic aspects of obesity (1st ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


References2

References

  • Mayo Clinic (2011). Why does eating breakfast help control weight? Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/food-and-nutrition/AN01119

  • McGuire, L. Smith, N. (2000). Cycling safety: injury prevention in Oxford cyclists. Injury Prevention, 6(4), 285-287.

  • Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental health (3rd ed.). Boston: Harvard University Press.


References3

References

  • Montague, C. (1997).Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in humans. Nature, 387, 903-908.

  • Ogden, C., Flegal, K., Carrol, M., & Johnson, C. (1999-2000). Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(14), 1728-1732.

  • Sabia, J. (2007). The effect of body weight on adolescent academic performance. Southern Econ J, 73(4), 871-900.


References4

References

  • Schneider M.J. (2010). Introduction of public health. Sudbury, MA. Jones and Barlett Publishers.

  • Schwimmer, J., Burwinkle, T., & Varni, J. (2003)Obese children and their parents report impaired quality of life. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(14), 1813-19.

  • Scott, A., & Wilson, R. (2011). Upstream ecological risks for overweight and obesity among African American youth in a rural town in the Deep South, 2007. Prev Chronic Dis, 8(1).

  • Wardle, J., Guthrie, C., Birch, L., & Plomin, R. (2001). Food and activity preferences in children of lean and obese parents. International Journal of Obesity, 25(7), 971-977.


Additional resources

Additional Resources

  • CDC, (2011). Make a difference at your school. Key strategies to prevent obesity. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/keystrategies/index.htm

  • CDC, (2011). The role of schools in preventing childhood obesity. Retrieved April 14th2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/physicalactivity/pdf/roleofschools_obesity.pdf

  • Penn Live (2010). Combating childhood obesity: schools offer kids exercise, education and health assessments. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://www.pennlive.com/bodyandmind/index.ssf/2010/05/combating_childhood_obesity_sc.html

  • US News (2004). Tackling childhood obesity in the schools. Retrieved April 13th, 2011 from http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/articles/041011/11fat.htm


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