A. chloroplast
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 17

A. chloroplast B. photosynthesis C. cellular respiration D. glucose E. fermentation PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 37 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

A. chloroplast B. photosynthesis C. cellular respiration D. glucose E. fermentation F. chemical energy G. mitochondria ____ 1. To stay alive, a cell must be able to release the ____________ that is stored in a molecule's bonds.

Download Presentation

A. chloroplast B. photosynthesis C. cellular respiration D. glucose E. fermentation

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


A chloroplast b photosynthesis c cellular respiration d glucose e fermentation

A. chloroplast

B. photosynthesis

C. cellular respiration

D. glucose

E. fermentation

F. chemical energy

G. mitochondria

____ 1. To stay alive, a cell must be able to release the ____________ that is stored in a molecule's bonds.

____ 2. ____________ is the process by which plants produce glucose and oxygen.

____ 3. A major energy source for most cells is a sugar molecule called ____________.

____ 4. Cells use oxygen to release the energy in glucose during ____________.

____ 5. Cellular respiration takes place in a cell's ____________.

____ 6. If a muscle cell does not have enough oxygen, it can still release energy through the process of

____________.


A chloroplast b photosynthesis c cellular respiration d glucose e fermentation

A. chloroplast

B. photosynthesis

C. cellular respiration

D. glucose

E. fermentation

F. chemical energy

G. mitochondria

____ 1. To stay alive, a cell must be able to release the ____________ that is stored in a molecule's bonds.

____ 2. ____________ is the process by which plants produce glucose and oxygen.

____ 3. A major energy source for most cells is a sugar molecule called ____________.

____ 4. Cells use oxygen to release the energy in glucose during ____________.

____ 5. Cellular respiration takes place in a cell's ____________.

____ 6. If a muscle cell does not have enough oxygen, it can still release energy through the process of

____________.

1. F. chemical energy

2. B. photosynthesis

3. D. glucose

4. C. cellular respiration

5. G. mitochondria

6. E. fermentation


Chapter 2 how cells function

2.1: Chemical reactions take place inside cells

2.2: Cells capture and release energy

2.3: Materials move across the cell’s membranes

Chapter 2: How Cells Function

Will learn:

-why cells need energy

-How energy is captured and stored

-How plants and animals get energy

Have already learned:

-the cell is the basic unit of all living things

-Plant cells and animal cells have -similarities and differences


All cells need energy

All cells need energy

  • Animal cells, plant cells, bacteria cells, unicellular organisms: ALL need energy

    • Animals get it from food

    • Plants get it from the sun

  • Type of energy = chemical energy!

    • Cells must release the chemical energy stored in bonds (between atoms) in order to stay alive

  • Cells release chemical energy from glucose (sugar molecule)


All cells need energy1

All cells need energy

  • Muscle cells 

    • release chemical energy from glucose to move legs 

      • More running, more glucose needed

  • Energy from?

    • food!

  • For plants:

    • Sunlight + water + CO2 glucose + O2


Some cells capture light energy

Some cells capture light energy

  • Source of ALL energy?

    • Ultimately…the SUN!

  • Photosynthesis – process that plants cells use:

    • Energy from sunlight into chemical energy

    • Takes place in plant cells that have chloroplasts

      • Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll

      • Chlorophyll absorbs light

    • Starting materials:

      carbon dioxide (air) + water (soil)

    • The process:

      Materials enter chloroplasts

      + energy (sunlight)

    • The products:

       Glucose and Oxygen!

      Some glucose is linked together

      to build large carbohydrates:

      • stored as starch


All cells release energy

All cells release energy

  • Glucose and other sugars are “cell food”

    • Glucose is stored as glycogen or starch

      • Must be broken down to use as energy

      • Break the bonds of sugar – release energy!

  • Two ways:

    • Respiration

      • Requires oxygen

      • Release more usable energy than fermentation

    • Fermentation

      • Does not require oxygen


Cellular respiration

Cellular Respiration

  • Think: reverse of photosynthesis…occurs in mitochondria (chloroplasts)

  • Starting materials: oxygen and sugar

    • USE oxygen to RELEASE energy stored in sugars, such as glucose

      • Gain oxygen and sugars

  • The process:

    • Glucose in cytoplasm is broken down into smaller molecules, releasing some energy

    • Molecules move to mitochondria and oxygen enters cell (and moves to mitochondria)

    • The smaller molecules are further broken down

      • Hydrogen released (combines with oxygen to make water)

  • The products

    • Energy, carbon dioxide, water (starting products of …)

  • Some of this energy is transferred to other molecules, so is released as heat


Fermentation

Fermentation

  • Cells releasing energy withOUT oxygen

  • When cells first break glucose into smaller molecules, a small amount of energy is released

    • With oxygen…cellular respiration would continue in the mitochondria

    • Without oxygen…fermentation continues in the cytoplasm

  • Two types: Alcoholic and Lactic Acid Fermentation

    • Both start with small molecules made from sugars

    • Next reactions occur producing either alcohol and carbon dioxide OR lactic acid

    • In both, a small amount of energy is then released


Fermentation1

Fermentation

  • Examples:

    • Bread: mix flour, milk, and sugar, with a microorganism yeast

      • Without oxygen, yeast converts the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide (CO2) – bubbles of CO2 gas form in the dough causing it to rise…alcohol evaporates, the yeast is killed, and CO2 makes the bread spongy

    • Yogurt, cheese, sourdough bread

      • Lactic acid bacteria convert the sugars found in milk

        • Sourdough bread: acidity changes  sour flavor

        • Yogurt and cheese: milk partially solidifies: creamy texture of yogurt…if fermentation continues  cheese


Energy and exercise

Energy and exercise

  • Some cells (and organisms) can release energy using either cellular respiration or fermentation

    • At rest, muscle cells store both energy and oxygen

    • During exercise all the energy and oxygen may be used up

      • Fermentation is then used to break down the sugars

        • Less energy than with cellular respiration

        • Waste product: lactic acid = burns!

      • Breath hard to replace used oxygen

      • Muscles stop hurting and build back up oxygen and energy levels


A chloroplast b photosynthesis c cellular respiration d glucose e fermentation

  • http://www.cambridgestudents.org.uk/subjectpages/biology/igcsebiology/igcsebiologysimulations

  • Grow a plant


  • Login