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-Extending man’s knowledge of Earth, the solar system and the universe…. WORLD SPACE PROGRAMS. Introduction. The reasoning for establishing the U.S. Space Program in 1958 hold true for the world today:. What are the principal reasons for undertaking a national space program?

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introduction
Introduction

The reasoning for establishing the U.S. Space

Program in 1958 hold true for the world today:

  • What are the principal reasons

for undertaking a national space program?

  • What can we expect to gain from space science and exploration?
  • What science facts and technology is needed for use in sound policy making?

Launch of Mercury-Atlas 7 Mission….NASA – First U.S. manned space program

four factors
Four Factors

These factors give importance, urgency

and inevitability to the advancement of

space technology:

  • Man’s compelling urge

to explore and to discover

  • Military defense objective
  • National prestige
  • New opportunities for scientific observation and experiment
cost justification
Cost Justification

“But if we have learned one lesson, it is that research and exploration have a remarkable way of paying off – quite aside from the fact that they demonstrate that man is alive and insatiably curious. And we all feel richer for knowing what explorers and scientists have learned about the universe in which we live…”

  • Excerpt from “Introduction to Outer Space,”
  • the White House…1958
first rocketry theories
First Rocketry Theories

1903: Russian Mathematician, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published the first serious work on space travel: “The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices.”

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

1920: Robert Goddard, an American Scientist, published “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes.” This was the first serious work on using rockets for space travel after Tsiolkovsky’s effort.

Robert Goddard

space program origins
Space Program Origins

While the observation of objects in space (known as astronomy) pre-dates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large liquid-fueled rocket engines during the early 20th century that allowed space exploration to become a practical possibility.

A group of 500 German scientists, Verein fur Raumshiffarht (VfR), started to experiment with testing rockets in 1930. If rockets were launched fast enough, they would go up into space (per Newton). This changed the nature of warfare and propelled the world into the space age.

1926: Robert Goddard and the first liquid-fueled rocket, in Auburn, MA.

operation paperclip
Operation Paperclip

Towards the end of World War II, the US intelligence & military services extracted 104 scientists from Nazi Germany. They worked at White Sands Proving Grounds (NM) on test launches and at Ft. Bliss, TX for research. The Nazi V-2 rocket developed into the American Redstone rocket, used in the early space program.

German rocket scientists from Operation Paperclip…1946

world space programs today
World Space Programs Today

Many countries of the world have individual government -sponsored space programs… as well as there are group efforts that combine multi-national expertise…

AustriaAustraliaBrazilCanadaChileChinaCzech RepEuropeFranceGermanyHungaryIndiaIndonesia

Iran

RussiaSaudiSingaporeS. KoreaSpainSwedenTaiwanThailandTurkeyUAEUKUkraineUSA

IraqIsraelItalyJapanKazakhstanLuxembourgMalaysiaMexico

Multi-national North KoreaNorwayPakistanPhilippinesPortugal

world spaceflight highlights
World Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1944: Nazi V-2 rocket… First man-made object to

cross the Karman line. (Sub-orbital)

  • 1946: US V-2 rocket… First successful US

spaceflight – Army/General Electric. (Sub-orbital)

  • 1957: R-7 Russian Sputnik… First successful

orbital satellite – started space race with US & was first comsat (communications satellite)

  • 1957: R-7 Russian Sputnik II… First living

organism (dog) launched into space

  • 1958: U.N. forms COPUOS (Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space) – currently there are 67 members
  • 1958: NASA founded - U.S.
  • 1958: US Explorer 1 (Juno1)… First American spacecraft in orbit – discovery of Van Allen belts
  • 1958: US Project SCORE (Atlas B)… First U.S. Communications satellite
  • 1959: US Pioneer 4 (Juno2)… First U.S. probe to escape from Earth’s gravity
spaceflight highlights
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1959: US Explorer 6 (Thor Able)… First pix of Earth

from space

  • 1959: SS-6/R-7 Russian Luna 2… First spacecraft to

reach the Moon – discovery of solar winds

  • 1960 : Thor Able-2/ TIROS 1... First successful orbital weather satellite –NASA
  • 1960: MIDAS-2… U.S. Air Force detection of IR sources
  • 1961: Redstone (MRLV)… U.S. sent first chimpanzee in space
  • 1961: Thor Able-Star/LEO… Exploration of radio wave propagation by U.S. NAVY
  • 1961: Vostok 1… First manned spaceflight by Soviet Union

(Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin) –April 12, 1961

  • 1961: Mercury-Redstone 3… First American in space

(Astronaut Alan Shepard)-May 5, 1961

  • Through 1962: Corona… First series of U.S. Spy Satellites

(single panoramic camera) by U.S. Air Force

Yuri Gagarin..

Venus…

spaceflight highlights1
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1962: Mercury Atlas-6… First American manned orbital space flight (Astronaut John Glenn)
  • 1962: Mariner 2… First successful U.S. Venus mission (fly by)
  • 1964: Ariel 1… First British space physics experiments in orbit through NASA
  • 1962:Alouette 1… First Canadian Satellite through NASA
  • 1962: Telstar… First Satellite to transmit high

speed data & telephone signals –AT&T, USA

  • 1963: Cosmos 14… First Soviet weather satellite
  • 1963: Vostok… First woman in space (Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova) – RVSN
  • 1964: Voskhod 1,3… First multi-person space flight –RSVN
  • 1965: Voskhod 2… First EVA (spacewalk) – RVSN –March 18, 1965

Valentina Tereshkova…

Verera 4

spaceflight highlights2
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1965: Gemini 4… First American spacewalk – NASA –June 3, 1965
  • 1965: INTELSAT 1… First commercial communications satellite –Hughes Aircraft/USA
  • 1966: Gemini 8… First docking in space (with GATV –NASA
  • 1967: Soviet Venera 4… Direct atmospheric study on Venus –first successful probe of environment on another planet -RSVN
  • 1967: Orbita…First national network of satellite tv systems -Soviet
  • 1968: Apollo 8… First manned mission to the moon –NASA
  • 1969: Soyuz 4 & 5… First manned docking between two spacecrafts – RSVN
  • 1969: Apollo 11… First manned lunar landing -NASA

Astronauts: Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins & Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, Jr.

  • 1970: Dong Fang Hong 1… First Satellite launched by China –PRC (Peoples’ Republic of China)
  • 1970:Uhuru… First satellite dedicated to X-Ray astronomy –NASA

Apollo 11 landing on Moon

spaceflight highlights3
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1970: Apollo 13… Furthest distance traveled by

space crew -401,056 km.

  • 1971: Salyut 1 Space Station… First space station -RSVN
  • 1971: IMEWS 2… First early warning defense satellite

–US Air Force

  • 1971: UN Program on Space Applications established
  • 1971: Mariner 9… First Martian orbiter –NASA
  • 1971: Soyuz 11… First manned space station -RVSN
  • 1971: Prospero… First British launched satellite

(for micrometeorite detection)

  • 1972: Venera 8… Atmospheric probe (50 min.) on

Venerian Surface

  • 1972: Pioneer 10… First spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt and make direct observations of Jupiter -NASA
  • 1973:Prognoz 3… Solar flare detection –RASA (Russian)
  • 1973:Nauka… Gamma Ray Telescope in space –Russian
  • 1973: DSP F-4… Missile Early Warning Detection Test –US Air Force

Pioneer 10 Flyby Deep Space

(artist’s sketch)

spaceflight highlights4
Spaceflight Highlights

Photo of Venus land from Venera 13

  • 1973: Explorer 29… Entered Selenocentric orbit (radio telescope –NASA
  • 1974:Aerobee 200-A… Aeronomy/UV astronomy –NASA
  • 1974: Mariner 10… First flyby of Mercury –NASA
  • 1976: Ekran… First direct to home tv satellite –RSVN
  • 1976: Palapa A1… First communications satellites launched by (separately) Indonesia, Arab League and Turkey
  • 1979:Soyez 33… First Austrian in space -Franz ArturViehböck
  • 1980:Soyez 6… First Asian in space –Pham Tuan (Vietnam)
  • 1980:Soyez 38… First Cuban in space –Arnaldo Tamayo Mendez
  • 1981: Columbia… STS-1 Maiden Flight of Space Shuttle –US Space Alliance
  • 1981: Voyager 2… Flyby of Saturn –NASA
  • 1982:Anik C-3… Used to distribute Canada’s first pay tv networks –Telesat Canada
  • 1982:Venera 13… Lands on Venus –Soviet
  • 1983: First US woman in space –Astronaut Sally Ride
  • 1984: STS-41-B… First untethered spacewalk –NASA

Saturn photo, by Voyager 2

spaceflight highlights5
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1984: Salyut-7…First Indian to travel in space –Rakesh Sharma
  • 1985: STS-51-G… First Arab, Muslim, Saudi and royal to travel in space -Sultan Bin Salman Bin Aldulaziz Al Saud –NASA
  • 1985: STS-51-G… First African-born man to travel in space -Patrick Baudry (Cameroon)
  • 1985: STS-61-B… First Mexican-born man to travel in space –Rodolfo Neri Vela
  • 1986: Voyager 2… Closest approach to Uranus discovers 10 new moons –NASA
  • 1988: Mir Soyuz TM-6… First Afghan in space -Abdul AhadMohmand
  • 1989: Voyager 2… Closest view of Neptune –NASA
  • 1990: Soyuz TM-11… First paying space traveler -Toyohiro Akiyama (Japan)
  • 1991: Project Juno; Soyuz TM-12… First Briton to travel in space -Helen Sharman
  • 1992: AP-MCSTA (Asian-Pacific Multilateral Space Technology Cooperative Symposium) is formed in the region.
  • 1992: STS-45... First Belgian in space -Dirk Fremut, (US launch)

Near Earth Asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft.

spaceflight highlights6
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1993: TDRS 6 (STS-54)… Tracking and Delay Relay Satellite launched to support ISS & communications satellite network –NASA & U.S. Govt.
  • 1993: STS-55… Reusable German Spacelab on shuttle and International cooperation demonstrated (11 countries; 88 experiments)
  • 1994: Discovery… First mission of the Shuttle-Mir Program – started a cooperative effort in space flight between

Russia and the US –Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev

  • 1995: Mir Exhibition 18…
  • 1995:Fasat-Alfa… First Chilean Satellite –VKS
  • 1996: Sojourner… First Mars Rover –NASA
  • 1996: STS-76… First Shuttle-Mir EVA -NASA/Russia
  • 1996: NEAR… First robotic space probe to orbit & land on as asteroid (Eros) -NASA
  • 1997: HALCA (Haluka)… First launch of Japanese M-V solid fuel rocket family for radio astronomy satellite research -ISAS
  • 1997:Earthview 01… First burial in space of human remains -Gene Roddenberry (Creator of Star Trek), Gerard O’Neill (Space Physicist), KrafftEhricke (rocket Scientist), Timothy Leary (writer, psychologist, & drug campaigner) –Space Services Inc.

Huygens surface color on Titan…

spaceflight highlights7
Spaceflight Highlights

NEAR

  • 1997: Cassini… First spacecraft to enter Saturian orbit via heliocentric orbit
  • 1997: Huygens… First spacecraft to land on Titan (Saturn’s largest moon)
  • 1998: Nilesat1… First Egyptian Satellite –Nilesat
  • 1998:Tubsat N… First orbital launch from a

submarine –TUB (German)

  • 1998: Kwangmyousong1… First attempt for North Korea to orbit a spacecraft (not succesful)
  • 1998: STS-95; 7… First Spanish astronaut –Pedro Duque
  • 1999: Athena-1… First Taiwanese satellite
  • 1999: Soyuz-U… Final operational crew on Mir -RKA
  • 2000: ISS… First resident crew on International Space Shuttle –NASA, RKA, JAXA, CSA, ESA
  • 2000: NEAR Shoemaker… First landing on an asteroid
  • 2000: Columbia LC39-B… First female shuttle commander

Eros

ISS

Pedro Duque

spaceflight highlights8
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 2000: Dnepr… First Malaysian satellite
  • 2000: 100th flight of space shuttle program –NASA –Oct. 24th
  • 2001: Soyuz TM-32… First privately funded person to travel in outer space –Dennis Tito (American); Cost: between $12–20 million
  • 2002: Soyuz TM-34… First South African to travel in space –Mark Shuttleworth
  • 2003:Hayabusa (Japanese for Peregrine Falcon)… Launch of first mission to return a sample from asteroid Itokowa -JAXA
  • 2003: Cubesats… Launch of first picosatellites (5 university and 1 commercial) for research purposes –German
  • 2003: Spitzer Space Telescope… Last of NASA’s Great Observatories (IR) launched into space
  • 2004: Flight 15P… First privately-funded human spaceflight –Astronaut Michael Melvill; Scaled Composite,CA
  • 2004: Messenger… Launch of first mission to orbit Mercury –NASA

Artist’s sketch of Spitzer spacecraft…

Spitzer image of new cloud formation in Serpens South

Astronaut MichealMelvill

spaceflight highlights9
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 2004: Spirit & Opportunity… Rovers land on Mars –NASA
  • 2005: Huygens… Separated from Cassini & landed on Saturn’s moon, Titan -NASA/ESA
  • 2005: Sina-1… Launch of first Iranian artificial satellite (Russian launch)
  • 2006: New Horizons… Launch of mission to Pluto (target arrival 2015) -NASA
  • 2006: ISS Expedition 13… First Brazilian in space

–Marcos Pontes (Russian launch)

  • 2006: KazSat-1… First Kazakh satellite -Government of Kazakhastan (Russian launch)
  • 2006: Stardust… First mission to return sample

cosmic dust to Earth -NASA

  • 2006: First Iranian in space -AnoushehAnsariانوشه انصاری(Russian launch)
  • 2006: Genesis 1… First experimental commercial space habitat (Russian launch)

Surface of Jupiter –New Horizons probe

AnoushehAnsari

Artist’s conception of Stardust spacecraft

Artist’s sketch of Mars Opportunity Rover

spaceflight highlights10
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 2006: ISS Expedition 14… First female space tourist -Sunita Williams NASA
  • 2006: TacSat-2/GeneSat-1… First launch from MARS (Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport) – commercial site near NASA Wallops Flight Facility (VA)
  • 2007: SRE-1… First Indian spacecraft

recovery.

  • 2007:Kavesh… First successful Iranian

scientific launch. -IARI

  • 2007:Liberdad 1… First Colombian

satellite. (Russian launch)

  • 2007:Yaogan 2… 100th successful

Chinese orbital launch -CNSA

  • 2007: ISS Expedition 16… First Malaysian in space; -Dr. Sheikh MuszapharShukor (Guest of Russian Government)
  • 2008: Chandrayaan-1… India launches mission to study Moon

Sunita Williams

MARS launch site in VA….

Dr. Sheikh MuszapharShukor

spaceflight highlights11
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 2007: Chang’e 1… First Chinese lunar probe -CNSA
  • 2007: AEGIS… First Japanese ABM test

(used American technology)

  • 2007: EPOXI… Deep Impact Flyby of Earth –NASA
  • 2008: Soyez-TMN-12… First second generation

cosmonaut in space -Sergey Volkov (Russian)

  • 2008: Soyez-TMN-12… First South Korean in

space -Yi So-yeon이소연 (Russian launch)

Astronaut Yi So-yeon…

Sergey Volkov

Artist’s sketch of Deep Impact…

world launch sites
World Launch Sites

Although there are many countries involved in space exploration, only the following ones have launch sites:

Brazil (1), China (3), European Space Agency (ESA-1), India (1),

Israel (1), Italy (1), Japan (2), Russia (4) and the US (3).

world launch sites space programs
World Launch Sites’ Space Programs

Space Shuttle launch as seen from the ISS…

brazil
BRAZIL

OVERALL GOALS:

  • Establish the scientific and technical competence in the space area which would make it possible for Brazil to act with real autonomy in some well identified situations, including the selection of technological solutions to Brazilian problems and the international negotiations, agreements and treaties.
  • Promote the development of space systems, and related ground infrastructure, that may provide data and services desired by Brazil.
  • Prepare the Brazilian industry to participate and become

competitive in the market for space goods and services.

Launch at Centro de Lançamento da Barreira do Inferno - CLBI

brazil1
BRAZIL

INPE: InstitutoNacional de PesquisasEspaciais (INPE)

  • 1961: GOCNAE (Grupo de OrganizacaodaComissaoNacional de AtividadesEspaciais) –Group for the Organization of the National Space Activities Commission (forerunner to INPE) is started.
  • 1965: First campaigns for launching work-loaded

probing rockets

  • 1969: Remote Sensing activities started
  • 1988: Brazil begins work with China in satellite development
  • 1993: First launch of wholly Brazilian satellite by INPE (in USA)
  • 1994: Civilian Authority overseen by President: AEB
  • 2005: INPE reaches 100 thousand images – makes

it the largest CBERS world distributor

  • 2006: First Brazilian space astronaut in space -Marcos Pontes (Russian launch to ISS
  • 2008: INPE distributes more than half a million CBERS images via internet

Marcos Pontes

Website: http://www.inpe.br/

china
CHINA

BACKGROUND

Since it’s birth in 1956, China\'s space industry was developed on the basis of weak infrastructure industries and a relatively backward scientific & technological level, under special national and historical conditions. In the process of carrying out space activities independently, China has opened a road of development unique to its national situation and scored a series of important achievements with relatively small input and within a relatively short span of time. Now, China ranks among the most advanced countries in the world in many important technological fields: satellite recovery, multi-satellite launch with a single rocket, rockets with cryogenic fuel, strap-on rockets, launch of geo-stationary satellites and TT&C.

Significant achievements have also been gained in the development and application of remote-sensing satellites and telecommunications satellites, and in manned spacecraft testing and space micro-gravity experiments.

KT-1 …2001

china1
CHINA

CNSA: China National Space Administration

The CNSA policy white paper lists short term goals as:

  • Build a long term earth observation system
  • Set up an independent satellite telecommunications network
  • Establish an independent satellite navigation and positioning system
  • Provide commercial launch services
  • Set up a remote sensing system
  • Study space science such as microgravity, space materials, life sciences, and astronomy
  • Plan for exploration of the moon

Among their stated longer term goals are:

  • Improve their standing in the world of space science
  • Establish a manned space station.
  • Conduct manned missions to the moon.
  • Establish a manned lunar base.
  • Achieve marketization & industrialization of space technology & apps.

Website: http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/main_e.asp

china2
CHINA

CNSA

Yang Liwei

  • 1956: The first space program in China was aimed at developing China\'s aviation, guided missiles, rockets and missile defense needs by the Central Defense Commission.
  • 1960: China’s first ever T-7M sounding rocket was successfully launched from the Nanhui launch site
  • 1968: 航天医学工程研究所…China’s Space Medical Institute

was founded

  • 1970: 東方紅… First Chinese satellite launched

-Dong Fang Hong I

  • 1975: 返回式卫星…First recoverable satellite by China
  • 1985: China started commercial launch program for

Asian and European interests

  • 1985: Challenger STS-51-B… Taylor Wang is first

Chinese-born man (US citizen) in space

  • 2003: Yang Liwei is first Chinese man sent into space by the Chinese space program
  • 2006: Chang\'e-1… First Lunar probe project
  • 2008:Shenzhou 7… First spacewalk (EVA) for China

Taylor Gun-Jin Wang

esa european space agency
ESA: European Space Agency

GOALS & AIMS

  • Maintain scientific & research projects
  • Engage in astronomy space missions
  • Design, develop & test technology for manned Mars mission in 2030 (not with NASA due to prohibitive U.S. technology sharing laws)

The European Space Agency (ESA) is Europe’s gateway to space. Its mission is to shape the development of Europe’s space capability and ensure that investment in space continues to deliver benefits to the citizens of Europe and the world.

Shot of Europe from space … ESA

esa european space agency1
ESA: European Space Agency

Europe formed two organizations to establish a European Space

Program: European Launch Development Organization (ELDO)

and European Space Research Organization (ESRO).

  • 1966: European Space Research Organization formally established (17 member states; headquartered in Paris; main spaceport in Guiana; Mission Control & Astronaut Centre in Germany; Earth observing missions in Italy).
  • 1968: European Space Research & Technology Centre (ESTEC) formed (Netherlands)
                  • 1971: Prospero… First UK Satellite launched
  • 1974: ESA Established – intergovernmental organization dedicated to space exploration.

Founding members: Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy,

the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain.

  • 1975: European Space Agency formed

(11 European nations)

Ariane-5 ECA Flight 164 launch… 2005

Website: http://www.esa.int/esaCP/index.html

esa european space agency2
ESA: European Space Agency

HIGHLIGHTS

  • 1975: COS-B… First ESA science mission: detect

& map gamma ray emissions across the universe.

  • 1978: IUE… First astronomical satellite in high Earth orbit.
  • 1983: Ulf Merbold –First ESA astronaut in space (German)
  • 1986: GIOTTO… First deep-space mission (passed close to Comet Halley) and robotic spacecraft found first evidence of organic material in a comet.
  • 2007: Corot… -First detection of extrasolar planet (French led)
  • (Expected) 2010: Cupoloa… Observatory module for direct view of ISS robotics and Earth

Ulf Merbold, German

france
FRANCE

GOALS & AIMS

Its task is to invent the space systems of the future, bring space

technologies to maturity and guarantee France’s independent

access to space.

CNES is helping to foster new technologies that will benefit

society as a whole, focusing on:

  • Access to space
  • Civil applications of space
  • Sustainable development
  • Science and technology research
  • Security and defense

Veronique, 1959

france1
FRANCE

CNES: Centre National d’EtudesSpatiales

  • 1949: Veronique… First flight test for first French rocket. The full-scaled Veronique launched in 1952
  • 1958: CERN… First co-operative European scientific lab developed due to large number of scientists leaving Europe after WWII.
  • 1961: CNES founded
  • 1965:Aesterix 1… First French satellite launched -FRANCE
  • 1982: Salyut 7…. Jean-Loup Chretien is first Western European in space –French Air Force, CNES (Soviet vehicle)
  • 2001: CNES transfers all projects to ESA

Jean-Loup Chretien

Website: http://www.cnes.fr/

india
INDIA

GOALS & AIMS

  • Develop space technology and its application to various national tasks.
  • Two major space systems:
    • INSAT for communication, television broadcasting and meteorological services
    • Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) system for resources monitoring and management.
  • Developed two satellite launch vehicles, PSLV and GSLV, to place INSAT and IRS satellites in the required orbits.

Launch pad at Sriharikota

india1
INDIA

ISRO: Indian Space Research Organization

  • 1962: Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was founded –led by founding father, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
  • 1969: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was founded
  • 1972: India develops its own Department of Space
  • 1975:Aryabhata… First Indian satellite launched from Russian site
  • 1980:Rohini 1… First Satellite launched into space – INDIA
  • 1984:Saylut 7… First Indian in space -Rakesh Sharma
  • 2007: SRE-1… Experimental space capsule that was launched, remained in space for 12 days and re-entered for research before manned mission occurs (expected by 2015)
  • 2008: CARTOSAT-2A, IMS1 & 8 foreign nano satellites …launched from Shriharikota
  • 2008: MIP & Chandrayaan-I… First Indian spacecraft to land on Moon

Rakesh Sharma

Website: http://www.isro.org/

israel
ISRAEL

VISION & MAIN GOALS

Ofeq 7…2007

  • "Space research and exploration is an essential instrument for the defense of life on Earth; the lever for technological progress; the key to existing in a modern society; essential for developing an economy based on knowledge; and the central attraction for scientific and qualified human resources.“
  • Preserve and broaden the comparative advantage of Israel & to place it among the group of leading countries in the space research and exploration area.
  • Build & support satellite systems for space & Earth research from space.
  • Develop technologies, knowledge & scientific infrastructure (including laboratories and human resources) required for space research.
  • Promote international cooperation in space research & exploration, and for strengthening Israel’s national interests.
  • Promote ties between Israeli society, space research, & exploration.
  • ISA has signed cooperation agreements with the space agencies of: USA (NASA), France (CNES), Canada (CSA), India (ISRO), Germany (DLR), Ukraine (NSAU), Russia (RKA), Netherlands (NIVR) and Brazil (AEB).
israel1
ISRAEL

ISA: Israeli Space Agency

  • 1983: Israeli Space Agency (ISA; hebrew:סוכנות החלל הישראלית) founded
  • 1988:Ofeq 1… First Israeli satellite launched into space
  • 1992: SDS-107… First Israeli science experiment on an American Space Shuttle
  • 1995:Ofeq 3… First Israeli reconnaissance satellite
  • 2002: Ofeq 5… Demonstrated ICBM potential
  • 2003: Columbia/NASA… First Israeli astronaut (Ilan Ramon)
  • 2003: TAUVEX... Jt. development w/ India of satellite telescope.
  • (Expected)2009: Opsat Satellite… High resolution new generation remote optical sensing

Website: http://www.iai.co.il/Default.aspx?FolderID=14467&lang=EN

Ilan Ramon

TECSAR Hi Res Imaging

italy
ITALY

BACKGROUND

San Marco platform, near Kenya

The Italian Space Agency came into being in 1988. Its purpose was to coordinate all of Italy’s efforts and investments in the space sector that had begun in the 1960s.

Today, ASI has a key role at the European level where Italy is the third contributor country to the European Space Agency (ESA). It also is involved at the international level. For example, ASI has a close working relationship with NASA, which has led to its participation in many of the most interesting scientific missions (including Cassini-Huygens, ISS, etc.) of recent years.

italy1
ITALY

ASI: AgenziaSpazialeItaliana

  • 1964: San Marco… Italy’s first satellite – part of European (ESA) space efforts (US -launched)
  • 1988: ASI founded
  • 1991:ItalSat F1… first launch for ASI
  • 1992: Tethered 1… First Italian to travel in space -Franco Malerba
  • 1996: Beppo Sax… Mission to learn about gamma ray bursts – served as input for NASA’s SWIFT and ASI’s AGILE projects
  • 2000: SRTM Mission… led to COSMO – the first global 3D planet mapping.
  • 2001: ISS… First Italian to travel to ISS –Umberto Guidoni
  • 2004: Rosetta Probe…. Launched to collect samples from comet (expected 2014)
  • 2007: AGILE… Fully Italian satellite launched that studies X and Gamma ray emissions

Rosetta Probe

Website: http://www.asi.it/SiteEN/Default.aspx

japan
JAPAN

VISION

  • Build a secure & prosperous society through the utilization of aerospace technology
  • Prepare for the unraveling of the mysteries of the universe and for lunar utilization, in order to seek the origins of the Earth and humankind
  • Implement world-class space transportation and Japan’s indigenous space activities
  • Develop aerospace as Japan’s next key industry
  • Establish Japan’s aviation industry & develop supersonic aircraft

S-520 … 2008

japan1
JAPAN

JAXA: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

宇宙航空研究開発機構

  • 1970:Osumi… First Japanese satellite launched
  • 1985:Suisei & Sakigake… First Japanese missions beyond Earth for observation of Halley’s Comet
  • 1990: Soyuz TM-11… First Japanese person in space (commercial venture)
  • 1992: STS-47… First Japanese astronaut: Mamoru Mohri
  • 2003: Three Japanese organizations merge to form JAXA: Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL), and National Space Development Agency (NASDA).
  • 2006: Launch of HINODE (Solar-B) for observation

of solar effects on the Earth –UK, Japan & US

Motto: “Reaching for the skies, exploring space…”

Mamoru Mohri

Website: http://www.jaxa.jp/

HINODE

russia
RUSSIA

MAJOR TRENDS

Launch site at Baikonur

  • Monitor natural environment and control critical emergencies
  • Global positioning of high precision coordinate & time data and enhance space navigation system
  • Support global communications & TV broadcasting
  • Evolve orbital mission crews and support international collaborative efforts on ISS development
  • Evolve space technologies and production of materials with unique properties
  • Create and enhance space vehicles, launchers and ground objects of the space infrastructure and ground experimental facilities through technological developments
  • Research markets
  • Study: exoatmospheric astrophysics,

planetology, space biology, physiology

& materials science

Vostok-1

Russian cosmodrome sites…

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RUSSIA

RKA: Russian Federal Space Agency

Laika

Korolev

  • 1921: Tikhomirov’s rocket development lab is established in Moscow. This marked the initial consideration of the multistage rocket.
  • 1927: Moscow… World’s first exposition of technology for interplanetary travel.
  • 1935: Soviet intelligence learns of development of German secret missile.
  • 1946: Soviet government launches a missile development program, based upon German technology (post WWII)
  • 1950: Soviets develop long range missile program –Sergei Korolev
  • 1957: Sputnik 1… First artificial satellite ever

launched and started “Space Race” with the U.S.

  • 1957: Sputnik 2… Proved living being could be

launched into space and survive weightlessness

Laika, the dog … -served as precursor to human missions

http://www.roscosmos.ru/index.asp?Lang=ENG

Site of German missile testing… 1943

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RUSSIA

HIGHLIGHTS

Valentina Tereshkova

  • 1961:Voskok 3KA-2… First human ever to travel into space

-Yuri Gagarin

  • 1963:Voskok 6… First woman ever to travel in space -Valentina Tereshkova
  • 1971: DOS-7K… First Soviet space station launched
  • 1975: 7K-TM… Docked with Apollo
  • 1986-2001: MIR… First permanent base in space
  • 1992: International Space Shuttle… Russia joins forces on work on ISS –use of Soyuz spacecraft & ISS docking with MIR
  • 2003: Soyuz… Russia launches first spacecraft from Kourou, French Guiana
  • 2005: Russia launches ESA’s Venus Express
  • 2009: (Expected) Russia to launch spacecraft for

study of Mars & its Moon, Phobos

Yuri Gagarin

DOS-7K

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USA

MAJOR TRENDS

First Human extra-vehicular spaceflight

– Gemini 4; Ed White - Astronaut

NASA\'s mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.

  • AERONAUTICS: pioneers and proves new flight technologies that improve our ability to explore and which have practical applications on Earth.
  • EXPLORATION SYSTEMS: creates new capabilities and spacecraft for affordable, sustainable human and robotic exploration.
  • SCIENCE: explores the Earth, moon, Mars and beyond; charts the best route of discovery; and reaps the benefits of Earth and space exploration for society.
  • SPACE OPERTIONS: provides critical enabling technologies for much of the rest of NASA through the space shuttle, the International Space Station and flight support.
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USA

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

HIGHLIGHTS

President Eisenhower creates NASA

  • 1958 – NASA is established
  • 1961 – Freedom 7… First American in Space–Alan B. Shepard, Jr.
  • 1961 – President Kennedy announces plan for U.S. to have a person make it to the moon within the decade
  • 1962 – Friendship 7… First American to orbit in space

-John H. Glenn, Jr.

  • 1965 - NASA announces search for scientist-astronauts
  • 1967 – NASA Administrator, James Webb,

advocated enlisting help of universities for

lunar science studies

  • 1969 – Apollo 11/Columbia & Eagle – First manned

lunar landing , EVA exploration & safe return

  • 1963 – President Kennedy calls for cooperative

efforts in space discovery between the U.S. and Soviets

Website: http://www.nasa.gov/home/index.html

Apollo 15 – David Scott … “The Hammer and the Feather.”

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USA

HIGHLIGHTS

  • 1983 – Sally Ride… First American woman in space
  • 1999 – NASA remote sensing technology (LiDAR ) helps forest rangers monitor wildlife (i.e. CA Spotted Owls) habitats from the sky
  • 2002 – NASA’s Aster image demonstrates extent of Colorado’s Hayman fires
  • 2006 - IKONOS satellite helps NASA scientists and

U of NH students locate over 1,000 yrs . old Mayan

ruins in Guatemala

  • 2006 – First HDTV broadcast from space (ISS)

to Earth

  • 2007 - Phoenix… Launch of spacecraft

to dig N section of Mars for

soil samples

Sally Ride – Challenger 1983

CA Spotted Owls

Aster image of

Hayman fires in CO

IKONOS satellite false color view of deep rainforest Mayan ruin of Tikal…

HDTV broadcast – Times Square, NY

Phoenix photo on Mars surface

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USA

HIGHLIGHTS

Hubble shot of cavernous star-forming region of NGC 3324, blasted out by intense stellar radiation. 10/2008

  • 2007 –Dawn… Successful launch for rendezvous and orbit of 2 asteroids for research of their internal structures
  • 2007 –STEREO… First 3D images of Solar UV rays
  • 2008 –SOHO… Finds 1500th comet
  • 2008 –U.S. House of Representatives extends waiver to the Iran, North Korea & Syria Nonproliferation Act, allowing NASA to purchase seats on the Russian Soyuz spacecrafts through July 2016.
  • 2008 –MRO/HIRISE… Evidence found of early water on MARS
  • 2008 –SWIFT… Most distant gamma -ray burst ever detected -NASA
  • 2008 –Hubble celebrates 10 years in space
  • 2008 –NASA is 50 years old

SWIFT shot of GRB 090813

MRO/HIRISE photo of possible

canyon/canal sites on MARS

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USA

NASA Celebrates 50 Years of Space Exploration & Discovery

Oct. 1, 2008: NASA celebrated its 50th Anniversary at the Smithsonian’s National Air & Space Museum Steven F. Udvar -Hazy Center

Expedition 17 Flight Engineer

Greg Chamitoff addresses the group

from the ISS…

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USA

FUTURE GOALS

In the next 20 years, NASA will be laying the groundwork for sending

humans not only beyond Earth\'s orbit, but further into to space than

they\'ve ever been. The next key steps are:

  • Complete the International Space Station and retire the Space Shuttle by 2010
  • Begin robotic missions to the Moon by 2008 and return people there by 2020
  • Continue robotic exploration of Mars and the Solar System
  • Develop a crew exploration vehicle and other

technologies required to send people beyond

low Earth orbit by 2014

  • Kepler Mission -2009… For Extrasolar

Terrestrial Planet Detection

Full Moon

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USA

FUTURE NASA PROJECTS

  • Broaden programs in science and aeronautics, while focusing the human spaceflight endeavors on exploration
  • Develop and expand partnerships with private industries
  • Develop a program to return humans to the Moon, establish a lunar base and pursue subsequent exploration of Mars and other destinations
  • Continued joint international efforts

Private company

Mars panorama, Spirit shot

barack obama s plan
Barack Obama’s Plan

STRENGTHEN AMERICA’S LEADERSHIP IN SPACE SCIENCE

“It is essential to maintain U.S. leadership in space… In 2010,

the U.S. will face a five-year gap in the ability to send astronauts

to the International Space Station. The Obama Administration

will restore America’s leadership in space science:

• Establish a robust program for human and robotic exploration

that preserves our space workforce, engages international

allies and draws on expertise in the private sector.

• Close the gap in NASA access to lower earth orbit and better

utilize the International Space Station.

• Strengthen NASA’s missions in space science, weather, climate

research, and aeronautical research.

• Develop a new generation of space vehicles to replace the

Space Shuttle scheduled to retire in 2010.

• Improve NASA’s educational outreach and programs that

promote spin-off consumer technologies.”

world space travel
World Space Travel

As of May, 2008 , individuals from 39 countries have traveled in space – 24 have been beyond low Earth orbit….

BELGIUM - 2

BULGARIA – 2

CANADA – 8

FRANCE - 9

GERMANY – 10

ITALY - 5

JAPAN - 7

NETHERLANDS - 2

People’s Republic of

CHINA - 3

RUSSIA - 41

SOVIET UNION - 72

UNITED STATES

of America - 305

OTHERS - 27

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