How Standards Interface with Curriculum and Instruction in Technology. Technology Education for the 21st Century: Bridging Theory and Practice Palestine, October 21-24, 2012. The Study of Technology.
How Standards Interface with Curriculum and Instruction in Technology
Technology Education for the 21st Century:
Bridging Theory and Practice
Palestine, October 21-24, 2012
In 2001 and 2004, The International Technology Education Association (ITEA) conducted polls which were done by the Gallup Organization on how people think about technology.
In both polls, a majority of the respondents (62% in 2004 and 59% in 2001) responded that science and technology are basically one and the same thing.
When asked how important it is for high school students to understand the relationship between science and technology, 98% of the the participants stated that they thought that this was “very or somewhat important”.
Most of those who participated (68% in 2004 & 67% in 2001) view technology very narrowly as being computers, electronics, and the internet.
There was near total consensus (98% in 2004 & 97% in 2001) in the public sampled that schools should include the study of technology in the curriculum.
Please let me say that the United States does not have all the answers or solutions about technology education. We have been working on it but we are by no means finished.
What is Science?
What is Technology?
Science seeks to understand the natural world.
National Science Education Standards, National Research Council, 1996.
A human need, or, more accurately, the object of a human need is something which a human being must have in order to live a good life.
A want, or more accurately, the object of a want, is something which one desires to have, whether or not one needs it.
Health and Safety
Food and Fiber
Shelter and Comfort
Deals with the natural world.
Is very concerned with what is(exists) in the natural world. (i.e.: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy, Geology, etc.)
Deals with how humans modify, change, alter, or control the natural world.
Is very concerned with what can or should be designed, made, or developed from natural world materials and substances to satisfy human needs and wants
Is concerned with processes that seek out the meaning of the natural world by “inquiring”,“discovering what is”, “exploring”, and using“the Scientific Method”.
Is concerned with such processes that we use to alter/change the natural world such as “Invention”, Innovation”, Practical Problem Solving, and Design.
While technology and science have a common denominator being the natural world, they are similar yet very different.
Technology is not any more “applied science” than science is “applied technology”.
This is the school subject specifically designed to teach children about the broad field of technology.
Technology Education (the study of technology) should NOT be confused with Information Technology or Educational (or instructional) Technology!
Technological literacy is the ability to use, manage, evaluate, and understand technology.Technology Literacy for All: A Rationale and Study for the Study of Technology (2006)
One that understands:
Technological literacy involves:
Much more than a knowledge about computers and digital electronics.
Gaining a degree of knowledge about the nature, behavior, power, and consequences of technology from a real world perspective.
There is a growing movement in some countries to teach the integrative subjects of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM).
So how do we educate our people to be technologically literate?
What Content should be taught in the study of technology that will provide technological literacy for all students?
Standards for Technological Literacy (STL)(ITEA, 2000,2002/2007) presents the content for what every student should know and be able to do in order to be technologically literate.
A standard is a written statement or statements about what is valued that can be used for making a judgment of quality.
(ITEA/ITEEA, Standards for Technological Literacy, 2000,2002,2007)
The curriculum is a plan for delivering the content in the Standards each day in the classroom and laboratory. Curriculum describes and specifies the methods, structure, organization, balance, and presentation of the content. (Adapted from STL, ITEEA 2000, 2002, 2006).
Subject–matter descriptions of what students should know and be able to do.
Concrete examples and explicit definitions of what students have to know and be able to do to demonstrate proficiency in the skills and knowledge outlined by the content standards (more like passing scores on a test).
◉ Standards become the basis for the way teachers are trained, what they teach and what is on standardized tests that students take.
◉ Also, standards are guideposts for schools. Teachers, parents and students use them as a tool to focus on what students are expected to learn in each grade and each subject.
*GreatSchools, Inc. <http://www.greatschools.org>
Benchmarks in STL are specific requirements or enablers for each grade level (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, & 9-12) that identify what needs to be done in order to meet a given standard.
A Sample Standard & Benchmark
Students will develop abilities to apply a design process.
Grades K-2 (Ages 5-7) Benchmark in Standard 11: Build or construct an object using a design process.
(The Eastonian and Finnish Translations are not shown)
The power and promise of technology can be further enhanced through the study of technology to assure that all people are technologically literate in the future.
A copy of this presentation can be downloaded by going to:http://www.iteea.org/Resources/PressRoom/PalestineKeynote2012.ppt
William E. Dugger, Jr.
Senior Fellow and Former Director
Technology for All Americans Project
International Technology and Engineering Educators Association
Emeritus Professor of Technology Education