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Regional Higher Education Conference 3-5 Dec, 2007 . Country case: Malaysia Issues on Research, Development and Commercialization. Prof Asma Ismail, Director, Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Health Campus,USM, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan and

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Country case malaysia issues on research development and commercialization

Regional Higher Education Conference

3-5 Dec, 2007

Country case: MalaysiaIssues on Research, Development and Commercialization

Prof Asma Ismail,

Director,

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM),

Health Campus,USM, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan and

Suite 110, Eureka Complex, USM

Minden, Penang


The Global agenda

© DAR2003

Knowledge era

Biotechnology era

The need

to move to K-economy

IT era

Increasing competition

Technological era

Agricultural era

Hot

Spots

21st

century

(Future)

Primitive era

650

1750

1950

2000

Modified from Richard W Oliver, The shape of things to come


Stages of economy for malaysia
Stages of economy for Malaysia

From resource-driven to Innovation-driven

  • “As nation develop, they progress through a number of stages in terms of their characteristic competitive advantages and modes of competing”

Investment

-driven

economy

Innovation

-driven

economy

Resouce

-driven

economy

Knowledge-based

Rubber, palm oil etc

Multinationals at free trade zones

  • - Porter M, Enhancing the microeconomic foundations of prosperity

© DAR 2002


New r d challenges
New R&D challenges

  • Challenge for R&D in the country would be how to move towards the requirements needed to succeed in the Innovation-led economy:

  • Technology-driven (10-15 years)

    • Dependent on our researchers

      • Own original scientific discoveries that will enhance the competitiveness and provides the leading edge for the country.

      • Set new trends in technology and create our own technology platforms

      • Ability to combine scientific discoveries and technology platforms to create new innovations that can create an impact to society and the global market; undergo translational research

  • Market-driven (3-5 years)

    • Dependent on our business community/government

    • Dependent on funding

    • Buy existing technology and innovate

  • Innovation-led economy

  • Technology driven

  • Market driven


Challenges in innovation led economy that affects r d
Challenges in Innovation-led economy that affects R&D

  • Political will

    • Create policies that support R&D, innovation and entrepreneurship

  • Human capital

    • Sufficient number of innovative, creative and relevant human capital (Knowledge-workers)

    • Originality and IP

      • Must show originality and creativity in offering solutions to problems with the generation of intellectual properties/ patents

    • Change in the R&D approach

      • Harness the human capital to create an environment of innovative culture

      • Work with the end in mind

  • Funding

    • Funding to drive R-D-C-E

    • Funding to buy existing technology (market-driven)


R d being the national agenda

‘Being a global player is unavoidable for a country that wants to develop’

- Abdullah

POLITICAL WILL

R&D being the National Agenda

  • Malaysia has the political will to ensure that R&D is the national agenda to drive the K-economy of the country (O.5% of GDP (6%).

  • The government has provided a lot of national grants (at least RM 1.7 billion from 2006-2010) to promote R&D&C

  • But is the amount ENOUGH to promote commercialization of research products


Moving towards successful K-economy: wants to develop’

R&D Challenge

PHASE 1

Making

scientific discoveries

Phase 1: Consolidating Research

R

Research discoveries, acquisition of technologies

Applied and fundamental grants

D

PHASE 2

Develop

prototype

Phase 2: Consolidating Development

  • Design, engineering and technology integration

Development grants, pre-bridging grants

C

Phase 3: Consolidating Commercialization

Patent, Marketing, Entrepreneurship and licensing

PHASE 3

Commercialize

Techno fund

Phase 4: Consolidating Knowledge-based enterprise (Research Park)

E

Smooth and continuous flow of R-D-C-E

PHASE 4

K-enterprise

  • Spin off companies/ JV companies

Venture Capitalists, Innofund


Pitfalls and challenges: wants to develop’

Status of Research & Development in Malaysia

R

Phase 1: Consolidating Research

Need to improve the number of publications

Need to improve impact factor

Need to improve citations

D

Phase 2: Consolidating Development

Phase 3: Consolidating Commercialization/Innovation/Technology licencing

C

WHY are we

not there yet?

  • Commercial arm of the University

  • Entrepreneurship

  • Spin-off companies

  • JV Companies

  • Licensing

E ???????


Why are we not there yet human capital
WHY are we not there yet? wants to develop’ Human capital

Not sufficient K -workers!

Need 60/10,000 pop

National Survey of Research and Development 2004, MASTIC


Expectations of modern universities in the knowledge era
Expectations of Modern Universities wants to develop’ in the Knowledge-era

  • Role of Universities include the need to train the human capital to be relevant and support the innovative culture

  • Expectations of Modern Universities

    • Generate knowledge

    • Disseminate knowledge

    • Facilitate translation of knowledge into tangible and intangible products

  • Universities are expected to undergo Research-Development-Commercialization of R&D and setting up of Knowledge-based enterprises in the Research Park

  • In Malaysia, we now have Research Universities that should lead the way to generate IP and wealth for the country and enhance the quality of life of the people.


If patents indicate originality/creativity wants to develop’

Indigenous Technology

We lacked originality in

performing R&D

Fadzilah Ahmad Din. National S&T Indicators in Malaysia: Where are we now?.

MASTIC, MOSTE, National Symposium on S&T, July 28-30,2003.

We lacked efficiency in

producing patents


Patents wants to develop’

  • Are people aware about IPR?

  • We need to encourage IPR awareness and the patent culture.

  • We should not view patents as a number game.

  • When we patent we should use it to design and develop new innovations. Patents must be used to generate income. It is used to generate K-based industries for the country.

The iceberg phenomenon


Commercialization of research products
Commercialization of research products wants to develop’

  • Commercialization of R&D products is not a simple process

  • It is a complex exercise that must address several issues before we can take the technology/product/process to the market


Commercialization of Knowledge wants to develop’

Idea (scientific discovery)

+

Innovative Technology

  • Undergo translational Research

  • Research theses

  • Patents and IPRs

  • Commercial viability

  • Business plan

  • Win awards

UNIVERSITY’s

ROLE

Lab model

Evaluate (lab-level)

DISCOVERY

COMPANY’s

ROLE

Issues: Since

industry

not ready, univ

has to do

both roles

Prototype

  • Business plan

  • Win awards

Packaging

Product

DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION

Evaluation

(multi-centres)

Technology

Licencing

Courtesy of Sam Teng Wah, USAINS


Benchmark with UK wants to develop’

2004 UK Patent-Investment ratios for 11 sectors

http://www.innovation.gov.uk/rd_scoreboard/patents_ratio.asp

No of disclosures differ

For different areas of focus

Ave 2.8 million pounds/patent

RM 20 million/patent

Investment of RM 1760 million, Malaysia should have 88 patents

But only 25 patents in biotech

Most expensive!


Reality check patent vs licencing
Reality check: Patent vs licencing wants to develop’

  • In USA the ratio of commercialization to patent is 1:3.5

  • Since we are spending RM1,760 we should hypothetically produced 88 patents ( 25 technology licencing for the country or 7 biotech licencing for the country)

  • Hence the lack of technology licencing and the setting up of K-based industries due to insufficient funding.


Reality check financial investment
Reality check: Financial investment wants to develop’

  • Business community:

    • Must believe that knowledge can be turned into a business

    • Must have strong network of angel investors

    • Must perform research as the basic building block for any K-based industry


Reality check financial investment1
Reality check: Financial investment wants to develop’

  • Currently Malaysian business communities lack the knack for K-based industries. Majority are still into property and manufacturing.

  • They will only come in at the latter part of research when you have developed

    • a product or devise or services or a process to undergo technology licensing or direct selling

  • Venture Capitalists as investors are also not adventurous (does not take risks).


Reality check need to change paradigm to do research
Reality check: Need to change paradigm to do research wants to develop’

  • We must meet the industry half way.

  • We must understand that in the new economy, a discovery has no value until it can benefit the public. Publishing and winning gold medals for the products created are not enough. It has to be commercialised.

  • Compromise: Work with the end in mind.

    • Cater for the needs of the client.

    • R&D product would be more commercially viable

  • Experimental design strategy must be from Z to A rather than A to Z.


  • Paradigm shift the new research approach
    Paradigm shift: The New Research approach wants to develop’

    • Strike a balance between fundamental and applied in order to undergo

    • Translational Research (Move R to D to C)

    • Work in multi-disciplinary clusters

    Generate

    new industries

    Produce relevant

    scientists and

    postgraduates to

    be drivers of K-economy

    • Generate Patents

    • Publications

    Create new

    Scientific

    discoveries

    Enhance

    quality

    of life

    INNOVATIONS

    STRATEGIC

    FUNDAMENTAL

    RESEARCH

    Z

    A

    +

    Work with end in mind

    Check market/client requirements

    Develop

    Advances in

    Technology

    • Incentives for scientists

    • Incentives for industries

    Consolidate

    existing

    industries

    Z

    To ensure products remain technologically competitive


    The innovation system at usm
    The Innovation system at USM wants to develop’

    R

    • Research

    • Development

    • Commercialisation

    • Enterprises (knowledge-based)

    • ResearchPark

      (in-campus ‘industrial alliances’)

    D

    C

    E

    (P)

    Innovation

    -driven

    Global vs Local

    © DAR2003


    INFORMM’s wants to develop’ Technology development and design strategies at MITD for diagnostics


    Working from Z to A (end in mind): Market foresight requirements for rapid diagnostics

    Criteria for Design and development

    • Rapid

    • Specific

    • Sensitive

    • Easy to perform

    • Cost effective

    • Can be transported without cold chain

    • Dot EIA

    • Dipstick

    • Sensor technology

    • Thermostabilised PCR

    • PCR DNA chip

    Scientific

    discovery

    Technology

    platform

    Patent separately


    Contribution to K-economy: Molecular Diagnostics requirements for rapid diagnostics

    Rapid protein or DNA - based diagnostics for the following diseases

    • Typhoid

    • Cholera

    • Campylobacteriosis

    • Filariasis

    • Tuberculosis

    • Dysentery

    • Paratyphoid

    • Nosocomial infections

    • Pharmacogenomics (Drug response to TB)

    Focus on diseases relevant to S.E Asia


    ORIGINAL requirements for rapid diagnostics

    DISCOVERIES

    Commercialization Track record: Antibody-based Biotech kits

    6 kits commercialised

    2002

    1996

    2005

    1994

    Bancroftian filariasis -2005

    Pan filariasis -2006


    Planned strategic approach for creation of technology platforms road map for typhoid diagnosis
    Planned strategic approach for creation of technology platforms( Road map for typhoid diagnosis )

    Thermostabilised PCR

    Universal PCR Chip

    (Nanotechnology)

    Immuno-chromatography

    Dot EIA

    (Require cold chain)

    (No cold chain)

    Scientific Discovery 50kDa

    1986-1991

    EZTYPHI carrier DNA

    TYPHIrapid™

    15 min

    1998

    2007

    2005

    2004

    1997

    1994

    TYPHOID DIAGNOSIS


    Commercialization of platformsTYPHIDOT – a rapid

    diagnostic test for typhoid

    R&D is necessary to

    make the product

    technologically

    competitive

    Pakistan

    India

    Philippines

    South Africa

    Guam

    Papua New Guinea

    Thailand

    Vietnam

    Egypt

    Turkey

    United Arab Republic

    Indonesia

    Bangladesh

    China

    Sudan

    Cameroon

    Nigeria

    USA

    • Outputs

    • 33Publications

    • 7 Patents

    • Creation of 500 jobs

    • Supported local industries

    • Generated income

    • Won >50 awards

    Global Distribution of Typhoid Fever


    Create new technology platforms for molecular diagnostics platforms

    Thermostabilised PCR

    USM invention

    M. Ravichandran et al

    Boil sample

    to obtain DNA

    3 min

    40 min

    80 min

    100bp DNA ladder marker

    Sample DNA + water

    (2 steps)

    Add 2 ul lysate

    + 18 ul water

    PCR product 415bp

    Amplication of target genes

    • No cold storage

    • Only two pipetting steps

    • Does not need PCR skilled personnels

    • Cheap (USD 10 to now USD 1)

    Gel electrophoresis analysis

    Duration: Approx 2.5 to 3 hours

    Require

    collaboration of strengths


    Thermostabilised PCR kits platforms

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

    EZEBV Amp

    ITEX 2004 Gold medal

    WIPO Gold Medal

    KASS Award 2004

    Geneva 2005 Gold Medal

    EZDysentry DNA

    ITEX 2005 Silver Medal

    EZVRE Amp

    ITEX 2005 Gold medal

    Geneva 2006 Gold Medal

    EZCholera Amp

    ITEX 2003 Silver Medal

    Cholera Genosensor

    A total solution

    SOLD

    EZCampy DNA

    Expo S&T 2005 Silver Medal

    Geneva 2006 Silver Medal

    EZTyphi Carrier DNA

    ITEX 2005 Gold medal

    ITEX 2005 Best Invention in Biotechnology

    Geneva 2006 Silver Medal

    EZDNA Amp

    Expo S&T 2003 Silver medal

    Commercialized by MBDr

    M’sian Patent: PI 20051471

    EZAmp Octaplex Cholera

    ITEX 2004 Gold medal

    WIPO Gold Medal

    Geneva 2005 Gold Medal

    SOLD

    EZTB Amp

    ITEX 2004 Silver medal

    Commercialized by MBDr

    Courtesy: M Ravichandran, USM


    Conclusion platforms

    • Development of technologically competitive product/device/process/expertise is no longer a luxury.

    • It is a necessity

    • It would require collaboration with other strengths on a global scale to stay ahead of the game

    • Malaysian R&D must be relevant, accessible, bring in respect and profits and not an economic drain

    ICT quad scan

    Universal

    PCR chip

    Genosensor


    Acknowledgements
    Acknowledgements platforms

    • Committee for National Strategies for Biotechnolgy

    • Committee for Human capital development – ASM

    • Committee for Strategic plans for KPT on R-D-C Issues


    ISO 9001:2000 platforms

    certified

    UK, France,

    Malaysia, Italy,

    Germany

    THANK YOU

    INFORMM Health campus

    INFORMM Main campus

    [email protected]

    Http: www.informm.usm.my

    Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine


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