Class 9a political geography ii
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Class 9a: Political Geography II. Reapportionment and redistricting Gerrymandering Local politics. Proportional representation. VA Plan vs. NJ Plan  Great Compromise Large states wanted proportional repr. Small states wanted equal repr. 3/5 Compromise on slaves.

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Class 9a political geography ii
Class 9a: Political Geography II

  • Reapportionment and redistricting

  • Gerrymandering

  • Local politics


Proportional representation
Proportional representation

  • VA Plan vs. NJ Plan  Great Compromise

  • Large states wanted proportional repr.

  • Small states wanted equal repr.

  • 3/5 Compromise on slaves


Proportional representation1
Proportional representation

  • 100 Senators, 435 Representatives

  • Basis for Electoral College

  • All votes are not equal

    • Minimum representation

    • Winner-take-all


Reapportionment
Reapportionment

  • Population changes with migration

  • Need to reapportion seats

  • Based on Census

  • Every state keeps at least one Representative

  • Method of equal proportions



Redistricting
Redistricting

  • Redrawing district boundaries based on reapportionment

  • In most states, done by legislature

  • Meant to maintain equality of votes

  • Can be manipulated


Gerrymandering
Gerrymandering

  • Discriminatory redistricting

  • Consolidating power

  • Diluting opponents’ power


Gerrymandering1
Gerrymandering

  • Racist gerrymandering after Civil War

    • Put all minorities in one district

    • Dilute them among all districts

  • 1982 Voting Rights Act

    • Majority-minority districts

    • Constitutional issues


IL: 4th District

TX: 12th District

FL: 22nd and 23rd Districts

GA: 13th District

NY: 18th District


Gerrymandering and democracy
Gerrymandering and democracy

  • Preserves incumbents

    • In 1992, 61% of races won by >20%

    • In 2002, 80% of races won by > 20%; average margin of victory 39%

    • 1 of 53 seats in CA competitive


Gerrymandering and democracy1
Gerrymandering and democracy

  • Removes decision-making from voters

  • “Candidates choose the voters”

  • More polarized Congress


Local politics
Local politics

  • Hierarchy of jurisdictions

  • Special-purpose districts

  • Local governments and urban sprawl


Hierarchy of jurisdictions
Hierarchy of jurisdictions

  • First order divisions

    • Largest units within a state

    • Provinces, states, oblasts, prefectures

    • Unitary vs. federal


Hierarchy of jurisdictions1
Hierarchy of jurisdictions

  • Second order divisions

    • Counties, townships, parishes, boroughs

    • 3000 in US; from 24 to 20,000 miles2 and from 100 to 8 million residents

  • Functions depend on the state

    • Law enforcement, highways, taxes, statistics, welfare, elections


Hierarchy of jurisdictions2
Hierarchy of jurisdictions

  • Minor civil divisions

    • Townships, cities, villages

  • Land use and zoning

  • Growth by annexation


Special purpose districts
Special purpose districts

  • Consequence of federal system

  • Territory and organization for one purpose

  • Fire, water, flood control, mosquito control, irrigation, etc.

  • Over 35,000 in 2002


School districts
School districts

  • Land granted to new territories (1 section per township)

  • Land grant colleges

  • Historically, little federal input

  • Over 15,000 in 2002

  • Funding depends on local tax income


Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl

  • Too much local decision-making

  • Each MCD acts in its own interests

    • Maximize tax revenue

    • Minimize need for services

  • Reluctance for regional government


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