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Inhaled Drugs beyond Bronchodilators. China 4000 Years Ago. Bennet’s inhaler. This may be the earliest published image of an  inhalation device. In 1654 an English physician, Christopher Bennet, himself suffering with consumption,

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Bennet s inhaler
Bennet’s inhaler

  • This may be the earliest published image of an  inhalation device. In 1654 an English physician, Christopher Bennet, himself suffering with consumption,

  • Bennet experimented on himself with a number of different remedies.


First isolation attempts
First isolation attempts

  • The Plague doctor illustration is from Devils, Drugs & Doctors (Haggard, 1929). It depicts the protective clothing used by doctors treating the plague in Marseilles c1720. The beak was filled with spices to purify the inhaled air. At the time it was believed that plague was contagious by touch, hence the leather gloves and wand.


Kirkwood s inhaler
Kirkwood’s inhaler

  • This advertisement from 1874 1888 shows Kirkwood’s inhaler, an apparatus for delivering fuming ammonium chloride. It was used as an antiseptic agent, and was recommended at times of contagion and epidemic.


Page s inhalers
Page's Inhalers

  • Page's Inhalers were smoked "for the temporary relief of the paroxysms of asthma and to aid in the relief of the discomforts dust to excessive secretions in the nasal passage associated with hay fever and simple nasal irritations. Page's Inhalers were produced by the Consolidated Chemical Company of Grand Rapids, Michigan which was established in 1892.



Early home care
Early Home Care

  • The ‘Indispensible’ inhaler was created by Dr Arnold, and was described as permitting the sick to follow the treatment of Dr Arnold at their own homes.



First listed inhaled medications
First Listed inhaled Medications

  • The first official formulae of inhalation medicines were listed in the British Pharmacopoeia of 1867.  

  • Hydrocyanic acid - which was used for the treatment of dry cough, however, in large doses it is lethal as it can paralyze respiration.  

  • Vapor of hemlock is also described, it was also used as a treatment for cough.

  • Vapor of creosote is also described, this was used as a treatment for tuberculosis and bronchitis.  



I will make this work

Cost

Lack of Knowledge

Lack of interest

I Will Make This Work




3 mechanisms usually cited by which an aerosol particle can deposit

Inertial impaction, - occurs with larger, fast-moving particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

Gravitational settling (sedimentation) is a function of particle size and time, with the rate of settling is proportional to particle size generally 5-10 μm reach the proximal generations of the lower respiratory tract.

Diffusion occurs with particles smaller than 1-5 μm reach the lung periphery

3 mechanisms usually cited by which an aerosol particle can deposit


Medical marihuana
Medical Marihuana particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx


Perception of marihuana use
Perception of Marihuana Use particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx


The real story
The Real Story particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Responsibility for the Medical Marihuana Program is The Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) within the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH)

  • A qualifying patient is a person who has been diagnosed by a physician and have obtain a written certification from a that physician as having a debilitating medical condition such as cancer, HIV, AIDS. A primary caregiver means a person who is at least 21 years old and who has agreed to assist with a patient’s medical use of marihuana and who has never been convicted of a felony involving illegal drugs. The caregiver can assist no more than five patients.


Albuterol for hyperkalemia
ALBUTEROL FOR HYPERKALEMIA particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Hyperkalemia is classified as mild (5.5 to 6.0), moderate (6.1 to 6.9) and severe (>7.0).

  • Definitive management of severe hyperkalemia is hemodialysis. Temporizing measures for moderate hyperkalemia,and severe hyperkalemia, includes

    • calcium gluconate

    • insulin with glucose

    • kayexalate


Albuterol for hyperkalemia guidelines
ALBUTEROL FOR HYPERKALEMIA Guidelines particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Albuterol can be administered in moderate to severe hyperkalemia.

  • Mechanism of action is an increased cellular uptake of potassium, similar to the actions of insulin

  • Onset of action was within 30 minutes, however the maximum effect was at 90 minutes after nebulization.

  • 12-40% of the patients were unresponsive to albuterol and it was recommended that insulin should always be given in conjunction with the albuterol

  • Nebulized dose of 10 mg was used in most adults studies but 20 mg was shown to be more effective at 120 minutes.

  • The potassium level should be measured 90-120 minutes after the desired dose is given and compared to the pre-albuterol level;


Heliox
Heliox particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Helium is a colorless tasteless, non-combustible gas that is biologically inert and insoluble in human tissue

  • It is seven times lighter than air.

  • Combining helium and oxygen (Heliox) results in a gas with a similar viscosity to air but with a substantially lower density.

  • Heliox lowers the resistance of gas flow in the airways and allows for an increase in ventilation due to changing turbulent flow into more efficient laminar flow. It also may decreases the pressure gradient needed to achieve a given level of turbulent flow which may decrease work of breathing.

  • Use of Heliox does not treat the underlying disease, but is used to reduce airways resistance and respiratory muscle work until definitive treatments act.


Heliox history
Heliox History particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • In 1930’s BarachIt recommended Heliox as an adjunct therapy for treatment of respiratory failure from obstructions of the larynx, trachea, and airways

  • Use decreased in the 1940s due to the World War II and the loss of helium sources and development of bronchodilators that were more effective.

  • Heliox resurfaced in the early 1980s when asthma deaths began to rise despite advances in medicine


Considerations of heliox
Considerations of Heliox particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Heliox usually comes in a 80/20 mixture.

  • There is little evidence of any severe adverse reactions for patients breathing Heliox since it is an inert gas that has no effect on human metabolism.

  • Helium has a high thermal conductivity and may be associated with a lowering of body temperature when used for prolonged periods.

  • Administration is best via a closed system as this allows the best concentration to be delivered to the patient without any mixing of room air to occur.

  • When using an 80/20 mix FIO2’s >0.45 negate the therapeutic effect of He/O2.

  • With an 80/20 mix when using an oxygen flow meter multiply by 1.8 to calculate the actual system flow.

  • Understanding the effects of heliox on ventilator performance.

  • Heliox cylinders cost about four times as much as oxygen .


Use of heliox
Use of particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynxHeliox

  • Decreases air-trapping in thereby reducing intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).

  • Decreases dyspnea and work of breathing,

  • Improves distal-airway deposition of aerosol particles.

  • Upper airways obstruction

  • COPD

  • Croup

  • Asthma


Evidence of heliox
Evidence of Heliox particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

A prospective study by Gluck showed heliox reduced peak airway pressure and PaCO2

and helped correct respiratory acidosis in 7 intubated patients with status asthmaticus.

Schaeffer reported that 11 mechanically ventilated for status asthmaticus receiving heliox had improved oxygenation in adult and pediatric patients.

A retrospective study by Abd-Allah heliox was used in 28 mechanically ventilated children with status asthmaticus. Heliox was associated with significantly lower mean peak pressure and mean PaCO2 , and a improved arterial pH.

Gerbeaux retrospectively studied 81 nonrandomized patients who were admitted for exacerbation of COPD and respiratory acidosis. 39 patients received 70:30 heliox and 42 did not receive heliox. There were no significant differences in age, gender, medicalhistory, Among those who received heliox, the intubation rate was lower (8% vs 50%, p 0.01), mortality was lower (3% vs 24%, p 0.01), and intensive-care-unit (ICU) admissions were lower (46% vs60%, p 0.23). Among the survivors, mean ICU stay was shorter (8 vs 18 d, p 0.01).

Gross et al found that in children mechanically ventilated for bronchiolitis, heliox did not improve oxygenation.


The white elephant in the room
The White Elephant in the Room particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Inhaled Vasodilators

    • The short half-life of inhaled vasodilators minimizes the systemic effects, compared to intravenous, subcutaneous,or oral administration

    • Vasodilators that have been administered via inhalation, clinically and experimentally, include oxygen, nitric oxide, milrinone, nitroglycerin, prostacyclins, nitroprusside, nitric oxide donors, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and agonists of soluble guanylate cyclase.


Nitric oxide
Nitric Oxide particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Nitric oxide was regarded as a pollutant until 1987.

  • NO is a free radical, produced by the endothelium, that relaxes Vascular smooth muscle (via, cGMP) producing vasodilation.

  • Atmospheric concentrations of nitric oxide typically range between 10 and 500 parts per billion but may reach 1.5 parts per million (ppm) in heavy traffic and 1000 ppm in tobacco smoke.

  • In 1991, inhaled nitric oxide was shown to be a selective pulmonary vasodilator in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

  • 1992 Nitric Oxide was named molecule

  • 1993, inhaled nitric oxide emerged as a potential therapy for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because it decreased pulmonary vascular resistance without affecting systemic blood pressure and improved oxygenation by redistributing pulmonary blood flow toward ventilated lung units in patients with this condition.

  • Short half life

  • Oxidizes to NO2

  • Almost all cells can produce NO


How does ino work

Fast acting particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

INO produces Selective Pulmonary Vasodilatation

Does not Cause Systemic Vasodilatation

Increases cGMP which causes Vasodilatation

Decrease intrapulmonary shunt

Pulmonary Effects

Increased Oxygenation

Decreased PVR

How does INO Work


No action
NO Action particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Mark J.D. Griffiths, M.R.C.P., Ph.D., and Timothy W. Evans, M.D., Ph.D


No effects
NO Effects particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

Mark J.D. Griffiths, M.R.C.P., Ph.D., and Timothy W. Evans, M.D., Ph.D


Indications
Indications particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx


Inhaled nitric oxide
Inhaled Nitric Oxide particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx


Pulmonary Hypertension Treatment Options Inhaled Nitric particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynxvs.Iloprost and Flolan


Ventavis iloprost
Ventavis (iloprost) particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

  • Synthetic analogue of prostacyclin PGI2

  • Dilates systemic and pulmonary vascular beds

  • Affects platelet aggregation

  • 10 mcg/ml

  • Must use 1 of 2 (AAD) Adaptive Aerosol Systems

  • Side effects

  • COMMON

  • Cardiovascular: Vasodilatation (27%) Dermatologic: Flushing

  • Musculoskeletal: Trismus (12%) Neurologic: Headache (30%)

  • Respiratory: Increasing frequency of cough (39%)

  • SERIOUS

  • Cardiovascular: Hypotension (11%) Respiratory: Pulmonary edema


I neb
I-neb particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx


Prodose
Prodose particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx


No vs iloprost
NO vs. ILoprost particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

Hoeper et al. JACC Vol. 35, No. 1, 2000


Aeroneb pro x
Aeroneb Pro-X particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx


Aerosolized prostacyclin epoprostenol flolan

Needs experienced Caregivers particles > 10 μm that are filtered in the nose and/or oropharynx

Prostacyclin

Normal

Solution

saline

(20,000

ng

/mL)

Infusion pump

Flow meter

IV extension

Stop cocks

Valved

Tee

24 in. aerosol

hose

Connector

Ventilator

nebulizer

12 in.

aerosol hose

Exp

filter

AEROSOLIZED PROSTACYCLIN (EPOPROSTENOL, FLOLAN)


Possibility of combined therapy

The treatment with nitric oxide alone or combined with prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

However, nitric oxide plus prostacyclin and nitric oxide plus ADM were more effective than nitric oxide alone.

The combination of aerosolized prostacyclin and ADM with nitric oxide might have a role in the treatment of infants with PH refractory to nitric oxide alone.

Possibility of Combined Therapy

2007;42:1048-1056 Carlo Dani, MD


Inhaled opioids
Inhaled Opioids prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.


Look at me now
Look at me Now prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.


Reason for inhaled opioids

Dyspnea due to Chronic pulmonary disorders prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

Pros

Rapid Absorption

Minimal Systemic effects

Cons

Mixed results

Small sample sizes

Possible Respiratory Depression

Legal issues of administration

may produce bronchospasm

Recommendations

Not recommended as a standard treatment option

May be helpful with refractory cases on patient by patient use

Pain management

Pros

Rapid Absorption

Minimal Systemic effects

Cons

Lack of experience in US

Reason for Inhaled Opioids


Inhaled insulin
Inhaled Insulin prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

  • FDA approved 2006

  • Rapid Acting

  • No injections

  • Works best with type 2

  • Cost more than injections

  • Possible pulmonary effects

  • Dosing can be complicated

  • Dropped by Pfizer

  • Several new drugs in pipeline


Pentamidine treatment administration
PENTAMIDINE TREATMENT ADMINISTRATION prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

  • Brand name Pentam 300

  • Indication: prophylaxis of Pneumoncystis carinii pneumonia in immune- suppressed patients

  • Dosage

    • 300 mg every 4 weeks

    • 150 mg every 2 weeks

    • 30 mg every 2 weeks

  • To prevent possible bronchospasm, patients should be given 2.5 mg of albuterol via MDI prior to pentamidine NMT.

  • Filtered Neb, protection of others


  • Inhaled chemotherapy doxorubicin cisplatin
    Inhaled CHEMOTHERAPY (Doxorubicin, Cisplatin ) prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • chemotherapy so it goes directly into the lungs. The goal is to maximize the delivery to the area needing treatment and minimize the toxicity to the rest of the body.

    • Furthermore, researchers found there was a 25-fold increase in the amount of chemotherapy found in the lungs compared with the level obtained with traditional intravenous delivery.

    • Cisplatin Childhood bone cancer


    Inhaled alteplase
    Inhaled Alteplase prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • Dissolve clots

    • Given to stroke patients

    • Same safety issues of other Blood thinners

    • Used as an inhaled drug to treat fibrin cast in the lungs


    Nose to brain
    Nose to Brain prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    OptiNose has developed innovative nasal drug delivery devices that enable nasal administration of CNS (nose to brain), systemic and topical nasal formulations. OptiNose’s unique breath actuated devices deliver intranasal drugs to targeted regions of the nasal cavity, including the sinuses and the olfactory region, without lung deposition, unlike traditional nasal inhalers, nasal sprays or nebulizers. The Company offers both single and multi-use intranasal delivery devices for liquid and powder formulations. Founded in 2000, OptiNose has extensively tested the technology in both in-vitro and in-vivo deposition studies and concluded Phase I studies. The Company has recently completed Phase II clinical studies with rhinosinusitis and migraine therapies.


    Surfactant replacement therapy
    Surfactant Replacement Therapy prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • Composed of lipids (90%) and proteins (10%).

    • Instillation directly into the lung possibly more effective at this time than aerosolized (Ex-osurf).

    • Cost for responders may be to high.


    Hypertonic saline
    Hypertonic Saline prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • CF airways lack enough salt and water, researchers thought a hypertonic saline mist would help clear the thick mucus from the lungs.

    • 7% hypertonic saline

    • Presented at the 2004 North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference published in the New England Journal of Medicine and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

    • 0.9% vs 7%

    • Both groups had increased lung function However the hypertonic group had even better lung function also, the hypertonic saline group had fewer lung infections.

    • Average dose 4 mL

    • You should not mix any other medications with hypertonic saline.

    • Side effects that were noted included coughing more, sore throat and chest tightness. (It is known that hypertonic saline can irritate the airways.)


    Pulmozyme dnase

    Pulmozyme is a man-made form of naturally occurring prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH. DNase.

    It works by "cutting up" the DNA left by neutrophils.

    Standard dose 2.5 mg

    Launched in 1994, Pulmozyme was the first new therapeutic drug for the management of CF in more than 30 years.

    Take every day, whether they have cystic fibrosis symptoms or not. This may help break the cycle of cystic fibrosis progression.

    Must be stored in the refrigerator at 2-8°C (36-46°F) and protected from strong light.

    Pulmozyme should not be diluted or mixed with other drugs,.mixing with other drugs could lead to adverse physiochemical and/or functional changes in Pulmozyme or the combined products.

    Daily administration of Pulmozyme has also been shown to reduce the risk of respiratory tract infections requiring less antibiotics.

    Pulmozyme should not be used in patients with known allergies to dornase alfa, Chinese Hamster Ovary cell products, or any component of the product.

    Pulmozyme (DNase)


    Pulmozyme action
    Pulmozyme Action prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    http://www.pulmozyme.com


    Administering aerosolized ribavirin clinical indications
    Administering Aerosolized Ribavirin Clinical Indications prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • Documented symptomatic RSV infectionRecipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant

      Recipients of autologenous stem cell transplant

      Contraindications

      • Hypersensitivity to Drug

      • Pregnant or planning to become pregnant within two weeks of exposure

      • Requiring mechanical ventilation

        Recommended Dosage

      • 33.3 mL of 60 mg ribavirin/mL aerosolized for 2 hrs every 8 hrs

      • Total of 6 g/day (100 mL divided into 3 doses)

      • Given for 5–10 days

      • NOTE: Administer a Bronchodilator Pre-treatment

    • C. Haas


    Setup
    Setup prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • Use Blender, if supplemental O2 is required

    • Assemble SPAG unit

      • Set Drive Pressure to 26 psi

      • Set Nebulizer Flowmeter to max (6-10 L/min)

      • Set Drying Chamber Flow to 8 L/min (range 3-8)

    • Attach aerosol tubing to patient face/trach mask

      • Not to be used on vent pts

    • Place a blue pad under the SPAG


    Employee precautions
    Employee Precautions prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • The treatment should be given in the Demistifier 2000B HEPA filtration scavenging hood

    • ‘Droplet Precautions’ should be followed for all patients with RSV (gloves, gown, isolation mask, face shield/goggles when w/i 3 feet of patient)

      • During therapy, wear an N-95 mask or the PAPR unit

    • Pregnant women should avoid contact

    • Those wearing contact lenses should avoid contact (wear goggles or take out)


    Patient preparation
    Patient Preparation prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • Explain therapy goals and procedure

    • Administer bronchodilator

    • Ask if patient needs to use the restroom

    • If wearing contact lens, ask to take out or apply goggles

    • Place a drape sheet over patient


    Spag 2 setup
    Spag-2 Setup prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    Driving Pressure (26 psi)

    Drying Chamber

    Nebulizer

    Nebulizer Flow 6 to 10 Lpm

    Drying Chamber flow 3 to 8 Lpm

    (Output is 12.5-15 mL/hr)


    Fightting the flu
    Fightting the Flu prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    RELENZA (ruh-LENS-uh) is a medicine that can both treat influenza (flu, infection caused by influenza virus) and help to prevent getting the flu. While some antiviral medicines only protect against influenza A, RELENZA is effective against both influenza A and B. RELENZA belongs to a group of medicines called neuraminidase inhibitors. These medications target the influenza virus and prevent it from spreading inside your body. RELENZA treats the cause of influenza at its source, rather than simply treating the symptoms.

    Some patients have had bronchospasm (wheezing) or serious breathing problems when they used RELENZA. Many but not all of these patients had previous asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


    The green movement
    The green Movement prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.


    Others that benefit form inhaled drugs
    Others That Benefit form Inhaled Drugs prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.


    Inhaled anesthetics in the icu

    Pro prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    May provide better sedation

    Cost

    Ability to avoid Hypotension

    Used as last ditch tx.

    Cons

    Untrained personal

    Environment

    Inhaled Anesthetics In the ICU


    A gaze into the future
    A Gaze Into The Future prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.


    Advanced delivery technology

    SPIONS-Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    Nanobytes

    Advanced delivery Technology


    Orbit 1

    Treatment for Bronchiectasis prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    First Patient February

    Phase 2b study

    96 Patients randomized 100 – 150 mg of Liposomal Ciprofloxacin

    ORBIT-1


    Carbon monoxide
    Carbon Monoxide prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • Carbon monoxide is lethal at certain doses that kills thousands of Americans every year

    • "The therapeutic window for carbon monoxide is very small, it's equivalent to the amount you'd receive sitting in a traffic jam in Mexico City

    • May improve transplant out comes-- Hmox expression goes up, it reduces iNOS expression and suppresses a key signaling pathway involved in the immune response

    • Research team focuses on the relationship between carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.


    Love hormone
    Love Hormone prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    University of Haifa has found that the hormone oxytocin, the “love hormone", which affects behaviors such as trust, empathy and generosity, also affects opposite behaviors, such as jealousy and gloating. "Subsequent to these findings, we assume that the hormone is an overall trigger for social sentiments: when the person's association is positive, oxytocin bolsters pro-social behaviors; when the association is negative, the hormone increases negative sentiments. Previous studies have shown that the oxytocin hormone has a positive effect on positive feelings. The hormone is released in the body naturally during childbirth and when engaging in sexual relations. Participants in an experiment who inhaled the synthetic form of the hormone displayed higher levels of altruistic feelings, and it is supposed that the hormone plays an important role in the formation of relationships between people. However, in earlier studies carried out by other investigators with rodents, it was found that the hormone is also related to higher levels of aggression. Therefore, it was decided to examine whether the hormone also affects negative social sentiments. The present study, which was published in the journal Biological Psychiatry, included 56 participants. Half of the participants inhaled the synthetic form of the hormone in the first session and were given a placebo in the second session; the others were given a placebo in the first session and oxytocin in the second session. Following drug administration each participant was asked to play a game of luck along with another competitor, who was in fact - and without their knowledge - a computer. Each of the participants was asked to choose one of three doors and was awarded the sum of money that was hidden behind that door. Sometimes the participant gained less money than the other player, and sometimes more, creating conditions in which a person might well develop feelings of envy and gloating. The findings show that those participants who inhaled the oxytocin displayed higher levels of envy when the opponent won more money and of gloating when they were ahead. Another interesting result was that as soon as the game was over, no differences between the participants were evident with regards to these sentiments. This indicates that the negative feelings were empowered only in the course of the game itself. Possible use of the hormone as a medication for various disorders, such as autism but the hormone's undesirable effects must be examined.


    New inhaled vasodilator
    New Inhaled Vasodilator prostacyclin or adrenomedullin (ADM) were effective in decreasing mean PAP and improving oxygenation in a piglet model of PH.

    • inhaled Treprostinil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The NDA will be subject to a standard review period of 10 months, with a targeted user fee deadline of April 30, 2009.United Therapeutics Corporation is a biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of unique products to address the unmet medical needs of patients with chronic and life-threatening cardiovascular and infectious diseases and cancer.Lung Rx, Inc. is a biotechnology company focused on unmet medical needs in pulmonary medicine and pulmonary delivery of innovative therapeutic products.


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