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ERT 446 FINAL YEAR PROJECT 2 THESIS FORMAT. Prepared by; SYAZWANI MAHMAD PUZI School of bioprocess engineering. NUMBER OF PAGES. Chapter 1 = 3-4 pages Chaper 2 = 10-15 pages Chapter 3 = 8-10 pages Chapter 4 = 10-15 pages Chapter 5 = 2-3 pages References = 2-3 pages

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Ert 446 final year project 2 thesis format

ERT 446 FINAL YEAR PROJECT 2THESIS FORMAT

Prepared by;

SYAZWANI MAHMAD PUZI

School of bioprocess engineering


Number of pages
NUMBER OF PAGES

  • Chapter 1 = 3-4 pages

  • Chaper 2 = 10-15 pages

  • Chapter 3 = 8-10 pages

  • Chapter 4 = 10-15 pages

  • Chapter 5 = 2-3 pages

  • References = 2-3 pages

    Total pages Chap 1-References 35-50 pages



2. SUBDIVISON

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

1.2 Problems Statement

1.3 Objectives

3-5 pages


CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Example 1:

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1Biolubricant

2.1.1 Type of Biolubricant

2.1.2 Source of Biolubricant

2.1.2 Physico-chemical Properties of Biolubricant

2.2 Jatrophacurcas

2.2.1 Source of Jatrophacurcas

2.2.1.1 Jatrophacurcasfrom Malaysia

2.2.1.2 Jatrophacurcasfrom Indonesia

2.3 Oil Blend

2.3.1 Application of Oil Blend

2.3.1 Advantages Oil Blend As Biolubricant

2.4 Design of Experiment (DOE)

2.5 Kinetic Study of Oil Blend


CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

Example 2:

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

1 paragraph of introduction

3.1 Materials

3.2 Oil Extraction

3.3 Determination of Physico-chemical Properties Of Oil Extraction

3.3.1 Total Fat Content

3.3.2 Acid Value

3.3.3 Peroxide value

3.4 Determination of Physico-chemical Properties Of Oil Blend

3.4.1 Total Fat Content

3.4.2 Acid Value

3.4.3 Peroxide value

3.5 Oil Blending

3.6 Screening of Oil Blend (JCO+Safflower Oil)

3.7 Optimization of Oil Blend (JCO_Safflower Oil)


CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Example 3:

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Comparison of Physico-chemical Properties-Before and After Blending

4.2 Fatty Acid Composition

4.3 Functional Group Identification – FTIR

4.4 Screening of Effect Parameters – Oil Blending

4.5 Optimization of Oil Blending

4.6 Characterization of Oil Blend as Biolubricant Application


CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

5.1 Summary

5.2 Recommendation for Future Project

5.3 Commercialization Potential

3- 4 Pages



Example 4: Non-numbering Style

Table 3.1: Recommended sample weights of oxirane oxygen determination.

Source: Swern et al. (2010).

12 point Times New Romans (single spacing for long tables, long equation, notes, footnotes & reference enteries.)


Example 5: Numbering Style

Table 3.1: Recommended sample weights of oxirane oxygen determination [4].

You may choose either non-numbering or numbering style in your thesis writing


Example 6: If your table exceed more than 1 page, the

caption for the continues table only type as below:

Table 3.1: Continue

Source: Swern et al. (2010).

Any table/figure/etc that you mention in the thesis must be appear/explain in the text of any paragraph of any chapter.

The position of the table either before or after the explanation.



Example 7:

Re-type by using

insert text in MSWords.

Border:

Black

1 – 1.5 weight

Figure 1.1: Production of Jatropha Seed Oil

Source: Swern et al. (2010).


Example 8:

Border:

Black

1 – 1.5 weight

Figure 1.1: Production of Jatropha Seed Oil [4].


Example 9:

If this figure not clear, you need to re-draw if it is necessary.


Example 10:

Plate 1.1: Milk clotting.


Example 11:

Figure 1.2: Transesterification reaction.

Source: Swern et al. (2010).

If the figure from internet/journal/etc not clear please used chemdraw software to sketch it.

Figure 1.2: Transesterification reaction.

Source: Swern et al. (2010).


http://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/http://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

http://scistore.cambridgesoft.com/ScistoreSoftwareDisplay.aspx?Trial=Trial/

http://www.acdlabs.com/resources/freeware/chemsketch/


4. Equationshttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

The procedure for determination of peroxide value was started with 2 g of sample was weighted into the 250 mL flask. The corrected ratio 3:2 of acetic acid –chloroform was added into the flask. Then, 0.5 mL of saturated potassium iodide was added and swirling the solution in 1 minute before adding of 30 mL distilled water. After that, 0.01 N sodium thiosulphate solutions were titrating gradually and vigorously shaking. The titration step was finished when a blue colour just disappears. Besides that, for sample contain high peroxide value, 0.01 N sodium thiosulphate solution was titrated until yellow iodine colour has most disappeared before starch indicator was added to continues titration until colour just almost disappears. Finally, blank test was carried out using the same procedure. Finally the peroxide value was calculated using Equation 3.10 (Salimon et al. 2006).

Peroxide value = (Vs-Vb ) N x 1000 (3.10)

W

Where,

Vs=Volume in milliliters, of the sodium thiosulphate solution of normality N,

used for determination

Vb= Volume in milliliters of the sodium thiosulphate solution used for the blank

test

W=Weight in grams of the test portion

N is the normality of the sodium thiosulphate solution


4. References-Journal: 1 Authorhttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Author Name. Year. Article Title. Name of Journal. Edition(month or no. publishing). Page number.

Example 12:

Cermak, V. (1975). Combined Heat Flow and Heat Measurements in the Bohemian Generation Massif, Journal of Geothermics, 4(3), pp. 19-26.

In thesis writing Non-numbering system:

The scope of peroxide value test is suitable for all normal fats and oils. In application, peroxide value can be used as an indicator to measure early oxidation process products (Salimon, 2006).

OR

According to Salimon (2006) the scope of peroxide value test is suitable for all normal fats and oils. In application, peroxide value can be used as an indicator to measure early oxidation process products.


4. References-Journal: 1 Authorhttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Author Name. Year. Article Title. Name of Journal. Edition(month or no. publishing). Page number.

Example 13: One Author

Cermak, V. (1975). Combined Heat Flow and Heat Measurements in the Bohemian Generation Massif, Journal of Geothermics, 4(3), pp. 19-26.

In thesis writing Numbering system:

The scope of peroxide value test is suitable for all normal fats and oils. In application, peroxide value can be used as an indicator to measure early oxidation process products [5].

According to Salimon [5], the scope of peroxide value test is suitable for all normal fats and oils. In application, peroxide value can be used as an indicator to measure early oxidation process products.


4. References-Journal: 2 Authorshttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Example 14:

Cermak, C.S. and Isbell, T.A. (2009), Synthesis and physical properties of mono-estolides with varying chain lenghts, Industrial Crops and Products, 29, pp. 205-213.

In thesis writing Non-numbering system:

Synthesis of long chain capped estolide was conducted without

solvent in 1000 mL three neck flask (Cermak and Isbell, 2009).

OR

Cermak and Isbell (2009) stated that, synthesis of long chain capped

estolide was conducted without solvent in 1000 mL three neck flask.


4. References-Journal: 2 Authorshttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Example 15:

Cermak, C.S. and Isbell, T.A. (2009), Synthesis and physical properties of mono-estolides with varying chain lenghts, Industrial Crops and Products, 29, pp. 205-213.

In thesis writing Numbering system:

Synthesis of long chain capped estolide was conducted without

solvent in 1000 mL three neck flask [5].

OR

Cermak and Isbell [5] stated that, synthesis of long chain capped

estolide was conducted without solvent in 1000 mL three neck flask.


4. References-Journal: More 2 Authorshttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Example 16:

Isbell, T.A., Lowery, B.A., DeKeyser, S.S., Winchell, M.L. and Cermak, S.C. (2006),Physical properties of triglyeceride estolides from lesquerella and castor oils, Industrial Crops and Products, 23(4), pp. 255-263.

In thesis writing Non-numbering system:

Lesquerella and castor triglyceride estolides improved the physical properties (Isbell et al., 2009).

OR

Isbell et al. (2009) conclude that, Lesquerella and castor

triglyceride estolides improved the physical properties


4. References-Journal: More 2 Authorshttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Example 17:

Isbell, T.A., Lowery, B.A., DeKeyser, S.S., Winchell, M.L. and Cermak, S.C. (2006),Physical properties of triglyeceride estolides from lesquerella and castor oils, Industrial Crops and Products, 23(4), pp. 255-263.

In thesis writing Non-numbering system:

Lesquerella and castor triglyceride estolides improved the physical properties (Isbell et al., 2009).

OR

Isbell et al. (2009) conclude that, Lesquerella and castor

triglyceride estolides improved the physical properties


4. References-Journal: More 2 Authorshttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Example 18:

Isbell, T.A., Lowery, B.A., DeKeyser, S.S., Winchell, M.L. and Cermak, S.C. (2006),Physical properties of triglyeceride estolides from lesquerella and castor oils, Industrial Crops and Products, 23(4), pp. 255-263.

In thesis writing Numbering system:

Lesquerella and castor triglyceride estolides improved the physical properties [5]

OR

Isbell et al. [5] conclude that, Lesquerella and castor

triglyceride estolides improved the physical properties


4. References: Conference or Proceedinghttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Author(s), (year). Article Title, Name of conference, Location of conference, page number.

Example 19:

Kua Lay Chim, Rozaini Abdullah, Zarina Zakaria & Huzairy Hassan, (2012).

Studies Of Potential Plant Parts Of Kesinai (Streblus Asper) For Protease Production, Proceeding Malaysian International Conference on Trends in Bioprocess Engineering, Kedah, Langkawi, pp 105-115.


4. References: Bookshttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Author(s), (year). Title of book in italic, Edition number, Name of publisher, publication.

Example 20:

Sze, S.M. (2012). Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, United Kingdom.


4. References: Thesishttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Author(s), (year). Title thesis in italic, Type of publication, Name of institution, country.

Example 21:

Sze, S.M. (2012). The production of glucose from paddy straw, MSc. Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia.


4. References List: Non-numbering systemhttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

Swern, D., Thomas, W.F., Geraldine, N.B., and John T.S. (1947). Determination of oxirane oxygen, Eastern Regional Research laboratory, Philadelphia 18.

Tan, S.G., and Chow, W.S. (2010). Biobasedepoxidized vegetable oils and its greener epoxy blends : a review, Polymer-Plastic Technology and Engineering, 49, pp. 1581-1590.

Wagner, H., Luther, R., and Theo, M. ( 2001). Lubricant base fluids based on renewableraw materials their catalytic manufacture and modification, Applied Catalysis A. 221, pp. 429-442.


4. References List: Numbering systemhttp://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

[1] Swern, D., Thomas, W.F., Geraldine, N.B., and John T.S. (1947). Determination of oxirane oxygen, Eastern Regional Research laboratory, Philadelphia 18.

[2] Wagner, H., Luther, R., and Theo, M. ( 2001). Lubricant base fluids based on renewableraw materials their catalytic manufacture and modification, Applied Catalysis A. 221, pp. 429-442.

[3] Tan, S.G., and Chow, W.S. (2010). Biobasedepoxidized vegetable oils and its greener epoxy blends : a review, Polymer-Plastic Technology and Engineering, 49, pp. 1581-1590.


http://www.mendeley.com/download-mendeley-desktop/http://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/

USED THIS LINK TO HELP YOU TO ORGANIZE ALL YOUR REFERENCES.


THANK YOU.http://www.cambridgesoft.com/Ensemble_for_Chemistry/ChemDraw/


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