Soils
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Soils

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We know more about the movement of celestial bodies than about the soil underfoot.- Leonardo da Vinci. Soil: Definition. . Solid earth material that has been altered by physical, chemical and organic processes so that it can support rooted plant life. Engineering definition: Anything that can be removed without blasting.
Soils

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1. Soils

3. Soil: Definition

4. Soil Production

5. Soil Production: Inputs

6. Soil Production: Outputs

7. Soil Thickness: Storage

8. Factors of Soil Formation

9. Factors of Soil Formation

10. Factors of Soil Formation

11. Factors of Soil Formation

12. Factors of Soil Formation

13. Factors of Soil Formation

14. Factors of Soil Formation

15. Factors of Soil Formation

17. Inputs from outside ecosystem Atmospheric inputs Precipitation, dust, deposition Horizontal inputs Floods, tidal exchange, erosion, land-water movement Inputs from within ecosystem Litterfall and root turnover

18. Decomposition of organic matter Humification to form complex organic matter Weathering of rocks Physical weathering Fragmentation of rock Freeze-thaw; drying-wetting; fire Physical abrasion Abrasion by glaciers Chemical weathering Dissolves primary minerals Forms secondary minerals

19. Breakdown of soil organic matter to form soluble compounds that can be absorbed or leached Depends on Quantity of input Location of input (roots vs. leaves) Environment Temperature Moisture Decomposition

20. Soil Horizons Layers in Soil Not Deposited, but Zones of Chemical Action Soil Profile Suite of Horizons at a Given Locality Soil Horizons and Profiles

21. Soil Profiles

22. Soil Profiles

23. Cookport soil, Pennsylvania

24. Physical weathering breaks rocks into small mineral particles.

25. Chemical weathering dissolves and changes minerals at the Earth?s surface.

26. Decomposing organic material from plants and animals mixes with accumulated soil minerals.

31. Balance Between: Downward Lowering of Ground Surface Downward Migration of Soil Horizons If erosion rapid or soil evolution slow, soils may never mature beyond a certain point. Extremely ancient soils may have lost everything movable Limits of Soil Development

32. Rates of Soil Development

33. Erosion of Natural Capital

34. Soil and the Life-Cycle of Civilizations


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