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Health impact assessment. Alex Scott-Samuel IMPACT International Health Impact Assessment Consortium, University of Liverpool . What is HIA?.

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Health impact assessment l.jpg

Health impact assessment

Alex Scott-Samuel

IMPACT

International Health Impact

Assessment Consortium, University of Liverpool

ihia.org.uk


What is hia l.jpg
What is HIA?

A combination of procedures, methods and tools by which a policy, programme or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population

Source: WHO Gothenburg consensus paper, 1999

ihia.org.uk


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Important characteristics of HIA

  • Prospective

  • Decision support tool, not evaluation method

  • Trade-off between brevity and rigour

ihia.org.uk


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Uses of HIA

  • creation of healthy public policies / projects

  • social and economic development

  • health advocacy

  • advocacy for disadvantaged groups

  • personal development

  • partnership building

ihia.org.uk


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Early origins: 1970-1990

  • environmental impact assessment

  • healthy public policy

ihia.org.uk


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IMPACT

  • Research

  • Consultancy

  • Training

  • Capacity building

ihia.org.uk


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Some IMPACT HIA projects

  • MerITS

  • Foresight Vehicle Initiative

  • CATCH

  • Merseytram Line 1

  • Public housing regeneration

  • Policy HIA for the EU – European Employment Strategy

  • Capacity building in Liverpool

ihia.org.uk


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Broad

perspective

Tight

perspective

Two perspectives of HIA

View of health

Holistic

Definition and observation

Disciplinary roots

Sociology, epidemiology

Epidemiology, toxicology

Ethos

Democratic

Technocratic

Quantification

In general terms

Towards exact measurement

Types of evidence

Key informant data

Measurements

Precision

Low

High

Source: National Assembly for Wales (1999) Developing health impact assessment in Wales.  

ihia.org.uk



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The Merseyside approach to HIA - 1 1991

  • Screening

  • Steering group and terms of reference

  • Select assessor

  • Policy analysis

  • Profiling of communities

  • Collect data from stakeholders and key informants

  • Identify health determinants affected

ihia.org.uk


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The Merseyside approach to HIA - 2 1991

  • Assess new and published evidence

  • Establish priority impacts

  • Recommend and justify options for action

  • Appraise assessment

  • Negotiate favoured options

  • Implement and monitor

  • Evaluate and document

ihia.org.uk


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Methodological 1991controversies

  • science and politics

  • value-free and value-laden

  • holism and reductionism

  • qualitative and quantitative

  • expertism and participation

  • duration and depth

  • equity and inequality

ihia.org.uk




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