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Chapter 1 The Ancient Greeks. Early Humans. Get Ready to Read (cont.). Building Your Vocabulary. historian (hih•STOHR•ee•uhn) . archaeologist ( AHR •kee•AH•luh•jihst) . artifact (AHR•tih• FAKT ) . fossil (FAH•suhl) . anthropologist ( AN •thruh•PAH•luh•jihst) .

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Chapter 1

The Ancient Greeks


Early Humans

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Building Your Vocabulary

  • historian (hih•STOHR•ee•uhn) 

  • archaeologist (AHR•kee•AH•luh•jihst) 

  • artifact (AHR•tih•FAKT) 

  • fossil (FAH•suhl) 

  • anthropologist (AN•thruh•PAH•luh•jihst) 

  • nomad (NOH•MAD)



Early Humans

Early Humans

  • History is the story of humans in the past, and historians are the people who study and write about humans of the past.

  • Archaeologists hunt for objects buried in the ground.

(pages 9–11)


Early Humans

Early Humans

(pages 9–11)


Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Anthropologists study how humans developed and related to each other.

  • Paleolithic people were nomads, traveling from place to place to hunt and search for food.

(pages 9–11)


Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Paleolithic women cared for children and gathered berries, nuts, and grains.

  • Paleolithic men hunted animals using clubs, spears, traps, and bows and arrows.

(pages 9–11)


Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Those in warm climates wore little clothing and had little need for shelter. 

  • Those in cold climates used caves for shelter. 

  • Over time, they learned to create shelters from animal hides and wooden poles.

(pages 9–11)


Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Paleolithic people developed spoken language and expressed themselves through art, which may have had religious meaning. 

  • During this time, humans created tools such as spears and hand axes using stone called flint.

(pages 9–11)


Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Paleolithic people discovered fire, which kept them warm, lit the darkness, and cooked food.

  • Long periods of extreme cold are called the Ice Ages.

  • During the Ice Ages, thick sheets of ice covered parts of Europe, Asia, and North America.

(pages 9–11)


Early Humans

How did spoken language help the Paleolithic people?

Language made it easier for people to work together and pass on knowledge.


Early Humans

Neolithic Times

  • In the beginning of the Neolithic Age, people began to domesticate, or tame, animals. 

  • Domesticated animals carried goods and provided meat, milk, and wool.

  • People in different parts of the world began growing crops about the same time.

  • Historians call this change the farming revolution.

(pages 13–15)


Early Humans

Neolithic Times (cont.)

  • Because farmers needed to stay close to their fields, they built permanent homes in villages.

  • Permanent villages provided people with security and steady food.

(pages 13–15)


Early Humans

Neolithic Times (cont.)

  • The surplus food led to a larger population. 

  • Not all people in a village were farmers.

  • Some made pottery, mats, and cloth.

  • They traded these goods for things they did not have.

(pages 13–15)


Early Humans

Neolithic Times (cont.)

  • People continued to create new technology.

  • They created better farming tools and began working with metal, copper, and tin.

  • They also began working with bronze.

(pages 13–15)


Early Humans

Why was farming important to the Neolithic people?

Farming allowed people to settle in one place, and it provided a steady food supply.


Early Humans

Who are archaeologists and what do they study?

Archaeologists are scientists who hunt for, dig up, and study artifacts.


Early Humans

How did domesticating animals help the Neolithic people?

Animals supplied meat, milk, and wool. They also carried goods and pulled carts.


Early Humans

Explain Why were Paleolithic people nomads?

They moved around to hunt animals and gather other foods.


Early Humans

Analyze Why was the ability to make a fire so important?

Fire kept humans warm, scared animals away, and was used to cook food.


Mesopotamian Civilization

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

  • Sumerians invented writing and made other important contributions to later peoples. 


Mesopotamian Civilization

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Locating Places

  • Tigris River (TY•gruhs) 

  • Euphrates River (yu•FRAY•teez) 

  • Mesopotamia

  • (MEH•suh•puh•TAY•mee•uh) 


Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia’s Civilization

  • Civilizations are complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system. 

  • Rivers were important because they made for good farming conditions.

  • They also made it easy for people to travel and trade.

  • Governments were formed because someone had to make plans and decisions for the common good.

(pages 17–20)


Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)

  • Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

  • Iraq is the current Country that occupies this territory.

  • Floods in Mesopotamia were frequent and unpredictable. 

  • They also used the rivers to irrigate, or water, their crops.

(pages 17–20)


Mesopotamian Civilization

A Skilled People

  • Mesopotamia has been called the cradle of civilization because of the influence of Sumerian ideas on other areas.

  • Writing helps people keep records and pass on ideas. 

  • Sumerians developed a writing system called cuneiform.

  • Only a few people, called scribes, learned to write.

(pages 20–21)


Mesopotamian Civilization

A Skilled People (cont.)

  • The Sumerians also produced the oldest known story, the Epic ofGilgamesh.

  • The Sumerians also invented new technology such as the wagon wheel, the sailboat, and the plow. 

  • The Sumerians developed many mathematical ideas, including geometry, a number system based on 60, and a 12-month calendar.

(pages 20–21)


Mesopotamian Civilization

Sargon and Hammurabi (cont.)

  • The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of laws covering crimes, farming, business activities, and marriage and family. 

  • Many punishments in the code were cruel, but the code was an important step in the development of a justice system.

(page 23)


The First Civilizations

Review Main Ideas

Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization

Where were the first civilizations in Mesopotamia?

in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers


The First Civilizations

Explain Why do you think Mesopotamia is sometimes called the “cradle of civilization”?

Some of the earliest known civilizations arose in Mesopotamia and had a great effect on world history.


The First Civilizations

Analyze Why was the switch from hunting and gathering to farming important enough to be called the farming revolution?

Farming allowed early humans to settle into villages, which was a new way of living that led to the rise of civilizations.


Early Humans

Scientists believe early humans made tools from other materials besides stone. They probably used wooden sticks to dig holes and used bark from trees to make containers. Unlike stone, these organic materials decay, so remnants from the early humans are unavailable.



Science and Inventions

Tools

One of the most important advances of prehistoric people was the creation of stone tools. Tools made hunting, gathering, building shelter, and making clothing much easier. The first tools were made of stones. Early humans quickly learned that grinding, breaking, and shaping the stones to create sharp edges made them more useful. As technology advanced, people began making specific tools such as food choppers, meat scrapers, and spear points. In time, people learned that hitting a stone in a particular way would produce a flake—a long, sharp chip. Flakes were similar to knives in the way they were used.


Ötzi the Iceman

c. 3300 B.C


Hammurabi

Reigned c. 1792–1750 B.C




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