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The students will explain how geography impacted civilizations in Mesopotamia. The students will identify the key developments of ancient Egyptian civilization. Complete Warm ups Read/Discuss Ch 2 Sections 1&2 Complete Section 1&2 Study Guides Complete Hammurabi Cause/Effect Activity.

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The students will explain how geography impacted civilizations in Mesopotamia.

The students will identify the key developments of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Complete Warm ups

Read/Discuss Ch 2 Sections 1&2

Complete Section 1&2 Study Guides

Complete Hammurabi Cause/Effect Activity

Objectives


LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS”


ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- DEFINITIONS

  • CITY STATES- self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland.


ANCIENTMESOPOTAMIA-GEOGRAPHY

  • LOCATED BETWEEN THE TIGRIS-EUPHRATES RIVERS

  • BOTH RIVERS FLOW INTO THE PERSIAN GULF

  • LOCATED IN PRESENT DAY IRAQ


Fertile Crescent


Mesopotamia


POSITIVE

abundant amount of clay

easy till-able soil

water supply from Tigris-Euphrates Rivers

NEGATIVE

few natural resources

minimal protection from deserts and mountains

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- GEOGRAPHY


City-States


ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION

  • BELIEVED TO BE SETTLED CA. 3000 B.C.

  • DIVIDED INTO CITY-STATES

  • HELPED TO DEVELOP THE FIRST FORM OF ORGANIZED RELIGION

  • CREATED ONE OF THE EARLIEST FORM OF WRITING


ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CITY-STATES

  • ALWAYS IN CONSTANT CONFLICT OVER WATER RIGHTS AND LAND

  • CREATED WALLS FOR PROTECTION, WITH MOATS ALONG THE OUTSIDE

  • FARMS WERE LOCATED ALONG THE OUTSIDE OF THE CITY


Sumerians invented:

  • Wheel

  • Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute

  • 12 month lunar calendar

  • arch

  • ramp


Religion


ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN RELIGION

  • Ziggurats: pyramid site of the temple of the main gods.

    • Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses

    • Sun god – most important.

  • Life after death was an extension of life.


Ziggurat – Holy Mountain


Ziggurat

  • Large pyramid shaped structures

  • Connected to heaven and earth

  • Ziggurat: “center for learning and religion”


How to Build a Ziggurat

How to Build a Ziggurat


Sumerian Religion

  • Monotheism: worshiping one god.

    • “Mono” – means one

  • Polytheism: worshiping many gods.

    • “Poly” – means many


Writing:Cuneiform


ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN WRITING

  • CALLED CUNEIFORM (LATIN FOR WEDGE)

  • WRITTEN ON CLAY TABLETS

  • NEEDED FOR RELIGION, GOVERNMENT, AND TRADE

  • LEARNED IN SCHOOL, BY MALES THAT LASTED FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET


Sumerian Writing: cuneiform

Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.


Cuneiform


Economy


ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY

  • Make, sell or barter goods.

  • Trade helped expansion.

  • Development of money

    • Will evolve over time.


RICH

government officials

religious leaders

traders

POOR

Farmers

craftsman

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY


ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN PASTIMES

  • Entertainment

    • No longer had to hunt and gather.

    • More time for fun times.

  • Rich had more time than poor.

  • Activities:

    • BOARD GAMES

    • INSTRUMENTS

    • BARE FISTED BOXING

  • Activities geared toward young and used for socializing.


The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived.

  • Agriculture (Farming)

  • Growth of Cities

  • Division of Labor (Specialization)

  • Trade

  • Writing and Mathematics


Persians

Akkadians

Babylonians

Sumeria

Hittites

Mesopotamian

Civilization

Chaldeans

Lydians

Phoenicians

Assyrians


Hittites

  • Iron Weapons

  • Add to your map the location:

    • Hittites

    • Assyrians

    • Akkadians


Assyrians

  • Chief god Assur

  • Chariots used

  • First Cavalry


Akkadians

  • Spoke a Semitic Language related to modern Hebrew and Arabic

When heaven above was not yet named, nor earth below pronounced by name, Apsu, the first one, their begetter and maker Tiamat, who bore them all, had mixed their waters together, but had not formed pastures, nor discovered reed-beds. When yet no gods were manifest, nor names pronounced, nor destinies decreed, then gods were born within them.


Babylonians

  • Chief god: Marduk

    • Prayed for good harvest and success in business.

  • King Hammurabi

  • Hammurabi’s Code

    • Earliest code of law

    • Based on equal retaliation.


Hammurabi’s Code

  • 282 laws.

  • Harsh punishment for crimes.

  • Based on equal retaliation.

    • “ If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital crime, but cannot prove it, the accuser, shall be put to death”

    • “If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off”

  • Laws were varied for the wealthy and powerful.


What do you think?

  • “ If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital crime, but cannot prove it, the accuser, shall be put to death”

  • “If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off”

  • If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss.

    • “If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death.


Chaldeans

  • Skilled astronomers

  • Hanging Gardens of Babylon

  • King Nebuchadnezzar built them for his wife

    • One of the Ancient Wonders of the World

http://www.crystalinks.com/seven.html


Persians

  • Present day Iran

  • Spoke an Indo-European Language

  • Zoroastrianism

    • Belief in final judgment and training for it


Phoenicians

  • Major natural resource: lumber from cedar forests.

  • Invented the art of glassblowing.

  • Alphabet

    • Then adopted by Greeks.

    • Then adopted by Romans

  • Please label Phoenicia on your map.


Lydians

  • First to use a money economy.

    • An economic system based in the use of money as a measure of value and a unit of account.


Warm ups

  • What were the basic units of Sumerian civilization?

  • Define patriarchal

  • Sumerian city-states contained what three major social groups?


Ch 2 Section 1

  • 1 cuneiform writing

  • 2 wagon wheel

  • 3 potters wheel

  • 4 sundial

  • 5 arch/dome

  • 6 they were the first to make bronze out of copper and tin


7. Where was Mesopotamia located?At the eastern end of the fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.


8. Which people had the most power in the Sumerian city-states?

The kings, priests and priestesses (nobles)


9. What two empires gained control of the Sumerian city states?

The Akkadians-ruled by Sargon and the Babylonians ruled by Hammurabi.


10. What principle was the basis for many of the laws in Hammurabi’s code?

Retribution-an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth


11. Why did the people of Mesopotamia believe that supernatural forces controlled their world?

Due to the harsh climate-floods were unpredictable, there were heavy rains, famines and scorching winds. The people knew that they could not control these things so they believed that supernatural forces ruled their worlds.


Ch 2 Section 2-Old Kingdom

  • 1 A bureaucracy developed to help the pharaohs rule, pyramids were built, mummification was used to preserve the dead and the Great Pyramid was built in 2540 B.C.


Middle Kingdom

  • 2 Egypt conquered Nubia and a canal was built to connect the Nile and the Red Sea. The Middle Kingdom ended when the Hyksos invaded Egypt in 1652 B.C.


New Kingdom

  • 3 Egypt became the most powerful state in southwest Asia, Hatshepsut became the first female pharaoh, Amenhotep IV forced the people to worship a single god.


4. How did the Nile effect life in ancient Egypt?

When the Nile flooded, it left behind fertile soil on both sides of the river enabling farmers to grow crops ; it also made travel easier while giving the people a sense of security.


5. Which gods were the most important to the Egyptians?

  • The sun gods-Atum and Re and the land gods- Osiris and Isis.


6. What is mummification, and why did the Egyptians use it?

  • Mummification is the process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from rotting. It was used to preserve the body after death.


7. How was Egyptian society like a pyramid?

  • The pharaoh was at the top, then there were nobles and priests, then scribes, merchants, artisans and at the bottom was the largest group-the peasants and farmers.


8. How were women treated in ancient Egypt?

  • They were respected and the upper class women could become priestesses. Four queens would become pharaohs.


9. What is hieratic script?

  • A simplified version of hieroglyphics that was used for business and daily life.


10. What advances did the Egyptians make in math and science?

  • They used geometry and learned how to calculate area and volume, they developed the 365 day calendar, they became experts at human anatomy, they also used splints and bandages to treat injuries.


The students will compare and contrast ancient civilizations.

The students will examine how the decline of the Hittites and the Egyptians allowed other city-states and kingdoms to emerge.

Complete Warm ups

Complete Comparison/Contrast Activity over Egypt and Sumeria

Read/Discuss Ch 2 Section 3

Complete Section 3 Study Guide

Objectives


Warm ups

  • Why were the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers important to Mesopotamian civilization?

  • How is monotheism different from polytheism?

  • How do a dynasty, a theocracy and a bureaucracy differ?

  • The first female pharaoh was whom?


The students will explain how the decline of the Egyptians allowed other city-states to emerge.

Complete Warm ups

Discuss Ch 2 Sections 3&4

Complete Section 3&4 Study Guide Questions

Complete “Rise of New Empires” Worksheet

Objectives


Warm ups

  • List two characteristics of the Phoenicians.

  • Who is Yahweh?

  • What is another name for governor?

  • From what two cities did the Royal Road extend?


Chapter 2 Section 3

  • 1. They were the first Indo-Europeans to use iron.


  • 2. They developed an alphabet that was passed on to the Greeks which is our alphabet today.


3. The religion of the Israelites became a major world religion.


4. What are pastoral nomads?

Nomads who domesticated animals for food and clothing. They moved along regular routes to find food for their animals.


5. What was the basis of the Phoenician economy?

  • trade


6. How was the Jewish religion different from other religions in western Asia and Egypt?

  • The Jewish religion was monotheistic, and other religions were polytheistic. Also in the Jewish religion, God’s wishes were written down so no single person could claim that he or she knew god’s will.


Chapter 2 Section 4

1. Assyrian Empire is established

.


2. Zoroaster is born


3. The Assyrian Empire falls to the Chaldeans and Medes.


4. Cyrus begins his rule.


5. Babylon falls to the Persians.


6. Darius begins his rule.


7. The Persian Empire falls to Alexander the Great.


8. How did the Assyrians communicate throughout their empire?

  • They used relays of horses to carry messages along a network of posts.


9. Why was Cyrus called “the Great”?

  • Due to the fact that he ruled with wisdom and compassion. He also created a powerful empire, but respected other cultures (for example he allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem).


Objectives

  • Hand in homework

  • Complete Warm up Quiz

  • Complete Book Check

  • Complete Ch 2 Test Essays-write 1 page for any 2 essays (worth 30 points each).

  • Complete Ch 2 Exam Review-Ch 2 Test next class period


Warm up Quiz

  • What were the basic units

  • of Sumerian civilization?


2. What is another name for governor?


3. List the six traits of a civilization.


4. What three things do all humans need to survive? Which is the most important?


5.In what continent did man first originate?


6. Who is Yahweh?


7. How is monotheism different from polytheism?


8. What two metals are combined to make bronze?


9. From what two cities did the Royal Road extend?


10. The Neolithic Age is also known as what?


Bonus Questions

  • 1. Who was the first female pharaoh?

  • 2. The Paleolithic Age is also known as what?


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