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Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors. What  is a comet?. A comet is a small body which scientists sometimes call a planetesimal. They are made out of dust, rock, gas, and ____. They are kind of like a dirty _________. ice. snowball. Comets are made up of different parts. The nucleus

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slide2

What  is a comet?

A comet is a small body which scientists sometimes call a planetesimal. They are made out of dust, rock, gas, and ____. They are kind of like a dirty _________.

ice

snowball

slide3

Comets are made up of different parts.

  • The nucleus
  • The coma
  • The ion tail
  • The dust tail
  • The hydrogen envelope
slide4

The nucleus is the frozen _______ of a comet’s head. It is composed of ____, ____, and dust. The nucleus contains most of the comet’s mass and measure about 10 miles across or less.

center

ice

gas

slide6

coma

The ______ is a spherical blob of gas that __________ the nucleus of a comet. As the comet gets closer to the sun, the heat __________ some of the ice and causes the comet to spew gas and dust particles into space.

surrounds

vaporizes

nucleus

The_________and the _______ form the head of a comet.

coma

slide7

ion tail

The _________ is made of ___________ charged gas molecules that are being pushed away from the nucleus by the solar _____. (The blue tail in the picture.)

electrically

wind

slide8

When a comet is approaching the Sun, the ion tail _______ the comet: when the comet is leaving of the Sun, the ion tail _____. The tail fades as the comet moves far from the Sun.

trails

leads

  • The ion tail can be well over 100 million km long.
slide9

The _________ develops when the comet is _____ the Sun. This tail is made of small dust particles that have evaporated from the nucleus and are being pushed away from the comet. The tail _______ slightly due to the comet’s motion.

dust tail

near

curves

slide10

The tail can be up to 250 million km long, and is most of what we see. Comets are only visible when they\'re _____ the sun in their elliptical orbits.

near

Comet Hale Bopp showing its two tails.

Courtesy of NASA

slide13

Surrounding the coma is an invisible layer of __________ that has been released. It is the ___________________ . This cannot be seen from Earth because its light is absorbed by our atmosphere. It is usually between the ion tail and the dust tail.

hydrogen

hydrogen envelope

slide14

Can you identify the following parts of a comet?

4.

Hydrogen envelope

1.

Ion tail

2.

Nucleus

3.

5.

Coma

Dust cloud

slide15

elliptical

Comets orbit the Sun in highly _________ orbits. Their speed _________ greatly when they are near the Sun and ______ down at the far reaches of the orbit. Since the comet is light only when it is near the Sun, comets are dark throughout most of their orbit.

increases

slows

slide16

Comets originate from either the _______ _____ (beyond the orbit of Neptune) or the ___________ (which surrounds the outer reaches of the solar system.)

Kuiper

  • Belt

Oort Cloud

slide17

Videos on Comets

http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/5354-the-small-pieces-comets-video.htm

http://www.brainpop.com/science/space/comets/

Animation of a Comet

http://www.kidsastronomy.com/comets.htm

slide18

ASTEROIDSAsteroids are _______ or _________ objects, also know as____________ or minor planets that revolve around our Sun.

rocky

metallic

planetoids

slide19

Most asteroids orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt located between _______ and _________. A few asteroids approach the Sun more closely. The asteroids in the asteroid belt have a slightly __________ orbit.

Mars

Jupiter

elliptical

  • The time for one revolution around the Sun varies from about _________ Earth years

3 to 6

slide20

Asteroids range in size from tiny pebbles to about 578 miles (930 kilometers) in diameter.

  • Sixteen of the 3,000 known asteroids are over 150 miles (240 km) in diameter.
slide21

Asteroid Ceres

  • Diameter of 590miles (950 km)
  • Largest asteroid and only dwarf planet in the inner Solar System
  • Asteroid Vesta
  • Diameter of 326 miles (525 km)
  • Brightest asteroid visible from the Earth.
slide22

Some asteroids even have orbiting ______. Here is the asteroid “243 Ida” and its tiny asteroid moon, Dactyl. This is the first asteroid ever found with an orbiting moon. Ida\'s dimensions are about 35 x 15 x 13 miles. Dactyl is only about 1 mile across.

moons

slide23

METEOROIDS, METEORS, and METEORITES

Meteoroids are ______ bodies that travel through space. Most meteoroids are smaller than the size of a ________. Meteoroids are tiny particles left by an asteroid or a comet.

small

pebble

slide24

A meteor is a meteoroid that has entered the _____________________, usually making a fiery trail as it falls. It is sometimes called a _________ star or a _______ star.

Earth’s atmosphere

shooting

falling

slide25

A meteor shower is a phenomenon in which ______ meteors fall through the atmosphere in a relatively ______ time and in approximately parallel trajectories.

many

short

Arizona, November 1966 - The Leonid meteor shower rained 2,300 meteors per minute for 20 minutes. (Photo NASA)

slide26

Video of meteor Shower

  • http://www.metacafe.com/watch/903546/time_lapse_of_the_perseid_meteor_shower_geminid/
slide27

A meteorite is a meteor that has fallen and ______ the Earth. These rare objects have survived a fiery fall through the Earth\'s atmosphere and have lost a lot of mass during that process.

struck

slide28

Near Winslow, Arizona, you can visit a crater that was made from a meteorite. The crater is nearly one mile across, 2.4 miles in circumference, and more than 500 feet deep.

Animation on the formation of this crater. http://www.meteorcrater.com/

slide29

RESOURCES

http://www.kidsastronomy.com/images/comet2.gif

http://www.kidsastronomy.com/comets.htm

http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/comet_worldbook.html

http://www.explanet.info/Chapter14.htm

http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/Archives/spring05/aprylh/Lesson1.html

http://spaceinimages.esa.int/Images/2002/11/The_nucleus_of_Comet_Halley

http://studentastronomyblog1.blogspot.com/2013/02/dirty-snowballs-comets.html

http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/comet3.htm

http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/tails-of-wonder/

http://www.thegalaxyguide.com/galaxy/comets/

http://spaceguard.rm.iasf.cnr.it/NScience/neo/neo-what/com-tail.htm

http://www.astropix.com/HTML/SHOWCASE/970401.HTM

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/comet.htm

http://blogs.saschina.org/julia01pd2014/2010/03/10/lab-answers/

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/activities/label/comet/

http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/segwayed/lessons/cometstale/frame_orbits.html

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/migrate3.gif

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/asteroids/features.html

http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Asteroid_belt_between_Mars_%26_Jupiter.PNG&filetimestamp=20050718221323&

slide30

http://www.sen.com/feature/space-rocks-comets-asteroids-meteorites-and-more.htmlhttp://www.sen.com/feature/space-rocks-comets-asteroids-meteorites-and-more.html

http://dustyloft.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/asteroids_comets_sc_0-000-075.png

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceres_(dwarf_planet)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meteoroid_meteor_meteorite.gif

http://rense.com/general42/ukteen.htm

http://weblogs.marylandweather.com/2010/01/twilight_meteor_reported_monda.html

http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/leonid2.htm

http://www.meteorcrater.com/

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