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Part 10. IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine. R adioactive Waste. Objective.

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Part 10

Part 10

IAEATraining Material on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine

RadioactiveWaste


Objective

Objective

To be aware of the general principles of the handling and the safety of radioactive waste. To be able to identify, store and dispose of the different types of waste generated in a nuclear medicine department

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Content

Content

  • Introduction

  • Basic requirements & legal framework

  • Waste collection, segregation and storage

  • Waste treatment and disposal

  • Examples of waste management in nuclear medicine. Local rules.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Module 10 1 introduction

Module 10.1 Introduction

IAEATraining Material on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine

Part 10Radioactive Waste


Radioactive waste in nuclear medicine

Radioactive Waste inNuclear Medicine

The use of unsealed sources in diagnosis and therapy will generate radioactive waste of different kinds during preparation,

patient examination and care

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Radioactive waste in nuclear medicine1

Radioactive Waste inNuclear Medicine

Sealed sources used for calibration and quality control of equipment, Point sources and anatomical markers, will end up as radioactive waste.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Radioactive waste in nuclear medicine2

Radioactive Waste inNuclear Medicine

  • Solid waste.

    Cover papers, gloves, empty vials and syringes.

    Radionuclide generators. Items used by hospitalized patients

    after radionuclide therapy. Sealed sources used for calibration of instruments. Animal carcasses and other biological waste.

  • Liquid waste.

    Residues of radionuclides. Patient excreta. Liquid scintil-

    lation solutions.

  • Gaseous waste.

    Exhausted gas from patients in nuclear medicine

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Module 10 2 basic requirements and legal framework

Module 10.2 Basic requirements and legal framework

IAEATraining Material on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine

Part 10Radioactive Waste


Fundamental principles

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

  • Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way as to secure an acceptable level of protection for human health.

  • Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way as to provide an acceptable level of protection of the environment.

  • Radioactive waste shall be managed within an appropriate national legal framework including clear allocation of responsibilities and provision for independent regulatory functions.

  • Generation of radioactive waste shall be kept to minimum practicable.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Waste management definitions

WASTE MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS

Radioactive

material for

reuse/recycle

Exempted

waste

Pre-treatment

Treatment

Interim

storage

Conditioning

Transportation

Disposal

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Waste management framework

Waste management framework

  • Organization and responsibilities

  • Waste inventory

  • Waste management plan

  • Waste minimization

  • Safety assessments

  • Facilities

  • Transports

  • Staff training

  • Documentation and records

  • Quality assurance

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Quality assurance

Quality assurance

  • Local rules

  • Normal working conditions

  • Accidents

  • Waste identification and traceability

  • Record system

  • Process control

  • Safe handling of radioactive sources

  • Facilities

  • Monitoring

  • Quality of containers

  • Arrangements for storage

  • Documentation

  • Audits

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Module 10 3 waste collection segregation and storage

Module 10.3 Waste collection, segregation and storage

IAEATraining Material on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine

Part 10Radioactive Waste


Radioactive waste bss

Radioactive waste-BSS

  • III.8.Registrants and licensees shall:

  • ensure that the activity and volume of any radioactive waste that result from the sources for which they are responsible be kept to the minimum practicable, and that the waste be managed, i.e. collected, handled, treated, conditioned, transported, stored and disposed of, in accordance with the requirements of the Standards, and any other applicable standard, and

  • segregate, and treat separately if appropriate, different types of radioactive waste where warranted by differences in factors such as radionuclide content, half-life, concentration, volume and physical and chemical properties, taking into account the available options for waste disposal.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Waste minimization

WASTE MINIMIZATION

A good planning of the nuclear medicine activity including selection of radionuclides and good working procedures will result in a reduced volume of radioactive waste.

Selection of radionuclides should take into account half-life, type of radiation, activity etc.

Working procedures should take into account the number of operations and material involved in the preparation, the risk of contamination etc.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Examples of waste from nuclear medicine

Examples of waste from Nuclear Medicine

  • Biological waste which may undergo decomposition.

  • Infectious waste requiring sterilization prior to disposal.

  • Broken glass-ware, syringes etc, requiring collection in separate containers to prevent personnel being injured.

  • Radionuclide generators

  • Bed linen and clothing from hospital wards.

  • Liquid scintillation solutions

  • Patient excreta ?

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Segregation of waste from nuclear medicine

Segregation of waste from Nuclear Medicine

  • Some examples of the different types of waste generated in a hospital

  • Liquid waste containing short-lived radionuclides capable of being stored for decay (radiopharmaceuticals).

  • Solid waste containing short-lived radionuclides capable of being stored for decay (contaminated items).

  • Liquid waste which after proper treatment and conditioning can be handled in the public waste treatment system (long-lived radiopharmaceuticals).

  • Solid waste which after proper treatment and conditioning can be handled in the public waste treatment system (biological samples, anatomical markers).

  • Sealed sources. (sources for calibration and QC)

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Segregation waste containers

Segregation/Waste containers

  • Containers to allow segregation of different types of radioactive waste should be available in areas where the waste is generated. The containers must be suitable for purpose (volume, shielding, leak proof, etc.)

  • Glassware with radionuclides (short half-life)

  • Syringes and needles

  • Gloves and paper

  • Glassware with radionuclides (medium half-life)

  • ..

  • ..

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Storage of radioactive waste

Storage of radioactive waste

A room for interim storage of radioactive waste should be available. The room should be locked, properly marked and ventilated.

Each type of waste should be kept in separate containers properly labeled to supply information about the radionuclide, activity concentration etc. Flammable goods should be kept apart.

Records should be kept where the origin of the waste can identified.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Storage of radioactive waste1

Storage of radioactive waste

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Storage of radioactive waste2

Storage of radioactive waste

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Storage of radioactive waste3

Storage of radioactive waste

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Module 10 4 waste treatment and disposal

Module 10.4 Waste treatment and disposal

IAEATraining Material on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine

Part 10Radioactive Waste


Radioactive waste bss1

Radioactive waste-BSS

  • ”III.9. Registrants and licensees shall ensure that radioactive substances from authorized practices and sources not be discharged to the environment unless:

  • either clearance has been granted for the radioactive substance or the discharge is within the discharge limits authorized by the Regulatory Authority;”

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Treatment of solid waste general principles

Treatment of solid waste(general principles)

The objective of the treatment process is to reduce the

volume of solid waste, reduce or eliminate potential

hazards associated with the waste and to produce waste

packages suitable for destruction, storage or transportation

to and disposal at a licensed repository.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Conditioning of solid waste

Conditioning of solid waste

Waste packages

Public system

National plant

Solid waste should be conditioned in order to produce a waste form suitable for storage and transportation governed

by the properties of the waste, the transport regulations

and the specific waste disposal acceptance requirements

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Disposal of solid waste

DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE

  • Example of national regulations of disposal of waste from

  • hospitals:

  • Disposal via the public waste treatment system

  • Maximum 10 ALImin /month and maximum 1 ALImin

  • per package.

  • The dose rate at the surface of each package should be

  • <5 uGy/h.

  • The package should not contain any single sealed source

  • with activity >50 kBq.

  • Each package should be properly labeled with a warning

  • sign containing information on radionuclide and activity. The

  • origin of the waste should also be given on the package.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Liquid waste effluent discharges

LIQUID WASTEEffluent discharges

Liquid waste

Treatment

Solid waste

Effluents

  • Liquid waste can be transformed to solid waste by some

  • treatment process such as evaporation.

  • Liquid waste can be discharged to the environment if either clearance has been granted for the radioactive substance or the discharge is within the limits authorized by the Regulatory Authority.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Effluent discharges example of rules

Effluent dischargesExample of rules

<10 ALImin per month and <1 ALImin or not more

than 100 MBq at each occasion.

Flush with plenty of water.

Use a special sink for the discharge.

A label should be posted informing personnel that

disposal of liquid waste is allowed at this point.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


National discharge limits example

National discharge limitsExample

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Module 10 5 examples and local rules

Module 10.5 Examples and Local Rules

IAEATraining Material on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine

Part 10Radioactive Waste


Short lived radionuclides

SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDES

Radionuclides such as Tc-99m, I-123, Tl-201, I-131

Sm-153, Sr-89 etc. should, after segregation, be stored

for decay during a period of time established locally by

the RPO, taking into account all applicable national

regulations.

Part 10. Radioactive waste


Patient excreta

PATIENT EXCRETA

  • Diagnostic patients

  • Generally no need for collection of excreta.

  • Ordinary toilets can be used.

  • Therapy patients

  • Different policies in different countries:

    • Use separate toilets equipped with delay tanks or

  • an active treatment system, or

    • Allow the excreta to be released directly into

  • the sewer system.

  • The Regulatory Authority should define the principles taking

  • the environmental impact into consideration

  • Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Liquid discharges i 131

    LIQUID DISCHARGESI-131

    Estimation of the generic clearance value for aquatic

    release of I-131 is quite complicated. Is all material

    retained in the sewage sludge at sewage treatment

    works or is all the activity discharged to a water body?

    Who will get the highest exposure? Which dilution of

    the radionuclide concentration will be found etc?

    Calculations must be made by qualified persons taking

    into account the guidance given by IAEA (TECDOC 1000)

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Tc generators

    Tc-generators

    Store for decay

    Check for contamination

    Dismount the generator

    Return to producer

    Exempted waste?

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Tc generator store for decay dismounting

    Tc-generator(store for decay & dismounting)

    Assume a generator with 20 GBq Mo-99 at reference time.

    The half-life of Mo-99 is 2.75 d and the exemption activity is

    1 MBq (BSS). The time for interim storage should then

    be 40 d.

    The dose rate at 1 m from the unshielded column will then be

    0.04 μSv/h. Hence, the external exposure will be very small when

    dismounting the generator.

    The dismounted column is exempted waste and the sign of

    its previous radioactivity should be removed. The column can

    now be discharged together with similar waste from the

    hospital.

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Dismounting a tc generator

    DISMOUNTING A TC-GENERATOR

    3. Check for radiation

    1. Check for radiation

    2. Remove the plastic cover

    4. Remove the column

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Dismounting a tc generator1

    DISMOUNTING A TC-GENERATOR

    5. Remove the lead shield

    7. Check if the columncan be classified as exemtedwaste

    6. Separate the different materials

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Sealed sources for qc of equipment

    Sealed sources for QC of equipment

    • Co-57 flood sources, anatomical markers etc used in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    • Co-57, Cs-137 etc calibration sources for activity meters.

    Should be transferred to a national plant for final disposal

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Liquid scintillation solutions

    Liquid scintillation solutions

    Small activities of H-3 or C-14 in organic solvents.

    Glass or plastic vials of 5-10 ml volume.

    Controlled Incineration in a plant!

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Biological waste

    Biological waste

    Pre-treatment (deep

    freezing, quicklime, chemical

    methods)

    Incineration

    Store for decay

    Transfer to

    depository

    Exempted waste

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Local rules

    LOCAL RULES

    Department of Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    Radiation Protection Manual

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Gloves, cover paper etc

    Syringes, needles

    Vials containing Tc99m

    Tl-201, In-111, Ga-67

    Technetium generator

    Flood sources, markers

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Summary

    Summary

    • The requirements of the BSS and other IAEA publication formulates the general rules regarding waste management.

    • An efficient national infrastructure and policy is required.

    • National regulations regarding disposal of waste should be available and form the basis of local rules in the hospital.

    • A well planned use of radionuclides is fundamental in a waste management system.

    • A system for segregation of the waste should be available in the department. This includes proper containers.

    • A room for storage of waste should be available.

    • A quality assurance programme in nuclear medicine should include management of radioactive waste.

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Part 10

    Questions?

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Discussion

    DISCUSSION

    How should a room for interim storage be classified?

    Controlled area? Supervised area?

    Where should the room be localized and how shouldit be designed?

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Discussion1

    DISCUSSION

    A physicist is measuring the radionuclide purity of a technetium generator. The measurementsreveal small amounts of Pu-239. Will this affectthe disposal of the generator?

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Discussion2

    DISCUSSION

    Discuss the possibilities of incineration of radioactivewaste. What basic requirements should be fulfilled bythe plant?

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Where to get more information

    Where to Get More Information

    • Other sessions

      • Part 4 Safety of sources. Design of facilities

      • Part 9. Quality assurance

      • Part 5 Occupational protection

    • Further readings

      • IAEA, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources Safety Series No.115, (1996)

      • IAEA, The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management, Safety Series No. 111-F, (1995)

      • IAEA, A Safety Guide on Predisposal management of radioactive waste from medicine, industry and research, Safety Standard Series No 111-G-2.2 (1997)

      • IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice, Volume 4, Nuclear Medicine. Manuscript.

      • Handling and disposal of radioactive materials in hospitals, ICRP Publication No. 25. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1977 (Annals of the ICRP No. 2)

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Pre treatment

    PRE-TREATMENT

    • Any or all the operations prior to waste treatment

    • such as:

      • collection

      • segregation

      • chemical adjustment

      • decontamination

    Collection and segregation of waste are important factors

    to consider in a system of waste management in nuclear

    medicine

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Exempted waste

    Exempted waste

    Storage for decay may release the waste from

    nuclear regulatory control. Clearance levels

    should be given by the national Regulatory

    Authority.

    All signs of its radioactive origin should be

    removed and the waste can be treated as any

    similar waste in the hospital taking into account

    the possible biological and chemical hazards.

    This is the most common way to handle radioactive

    waste in nuclear medicine.

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Disposal

    DISPOSAL

    The emplacement of waste in an approved specified facility (for example, near surface or geological repository) without the intention of retrieval ("confine and contain”). Disposal may also include the approved direct discharge of effluents (for example, liquid and gaseous wastes) into the environment with subsequent dispersion ("dilute and disperse”).

    Both methods are used in disposal of waste in nuclear medicine

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Treatment

    TREATMENT

    • Operations intended to benefit safety and/or

    • economy by changing the characteristics of the

    • waste. Three basic treatment objectives are:

      • volume reduction

      • removal of radionuclides from the waste

      • change of composition.

    • After treatment, the waste may or may not be

    • immobilized to achieve an appropriate waste form.

    • Generally not used ín Nuclear Medicine

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Conditioning

    CONDITIONING

    Those operations that produce a waste package suitable for handling, transportation, storage and/or disposal.

    Conditioning may include the conversion of the waste to a solid waste form, enclosure of the waste in containers and, if necessary, providing an overpack.

    Should be applied to long lived sealed sources used for

    calibration and QC of nuclear medicine equipment.

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Interim storage

    INTERIM STORAGE

    Storage of waste at different stages of the waste management process, before the final disposal.

    A room for interim storage of waste should be available in a nuclear medicine facility. It is mainly used for storage for decay to exemption levels. This is the main method of final disposal of waste generated in nuclear medicine.

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Transportation

    TRANSPORTATION

    Transportation of waste at different stages of the waste management process, before the final disposal. The international regulations established by IAEA shall be followed.

    Note that radioactive waste should be handled similar to any radioactive source.

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Local rules 1

    LOCAL RULES 1

    Department of Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    Radiation Protection Manual

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Gloves, cover paper etc

    • Shall continuously be collected in the plastic bags placed in the rooms

    • for preparationand injection of radiopharmaceuticals

    • When the bag is filled, seal it and move it to room 2:13.

    • Write the expected date of disposal (today's date+14 days)

    • Before disposal, check the external dose rate on the surface. If the dose

    • rate does not exceed the background,.the bag can be disposed of as

    • ordinary waste.

    • If the doserate exceeds the background, write the new date of disposal

    • on the bag and store it foranother 14 days.

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Local rules 2

    LOCAL RULES 2

    Department of Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    Radiation Protection Manual

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Used syringes and needles etc

    • Shall continuously be collected in the shielded container in the rooms

    • for preparationand injection of radiopharmaceuticals

    • When the container is filled, seal it and move it to the fume hood in room

    • 2:13.

    • Write he expected date of disposal (today's date+4 weeks) on the

    • container and place it behind the lead shield.

    • Before disposal, check the external dose rate on the surface. If the dose

    • rate does not exceed the background,.the container can be disposed of

    • according to the ordinary rules for dangerous items

    • If the dose rate exceeds the background, write the new date of disposal

    • on the container and store it for another 4 weeks,

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Local rules 3

    LOCAL RULES 3

    Department of Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    Radiation Protection Manual

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Vials containing residues of Tc-99m

    • Shall continuously be collected in the shielded container in the room for

    • preparationof radiopharmaceuticals

    • When the container is filled, seal it and move it to the fume hood in room

    • 2:13.

    • Write the expected day of disposal (today's date+4 weeks) on the

    • container and place it behind the lead shield.

    • Before disposal, check the external dose rate on the surface. If the dose

    • rate does not exceed the background,.the container can be disposed of

    • according to the ordinary rules for glassware

    • If the dose rate exceeds the background, write the new date of disposal

    • on the container and store it for another 4 weeks,

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Local rules 4

    LOCAL RULES 4

    Department of Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    Radiation Protection Manual

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Vials containing residues of Tl-201, In-111 and Ga-67

    • Measure the residual activity

    • Put the vial in the original lead shield and move it to room 2:13

    • If the activity is below 100 MBq, open the vial and pour the content in the

    • sewage system. Use the sink in room 2:13. Flush with plenty of water.

    • Rinse the vial and dispose it as ordinary glass ware. Use protective

    • gloves and clothing during the work.

    • Check for contamination of the sink. Clean it if contamination is detected

    • If the residual activity is >100 MBq, calculate the time of storage using

    • the tables posted in the room. Write the date of disposal on the vial and

    • put in the fume hood.

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Local rules 5

    LOCAL RULES 5

    Department of Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    Radiation Protection Manual

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Technetium generator

    • Put the used generator back into the transport container

    • Move the container to the room for interim storage of waste (no 01:24

    • located in the basement). The key to the room is kept by the Chief

    • Technician

    • Fill in the record (generator no and today's date)

    • The used generators will be picked up every 8th week by the producer.

    • Check the containers for contamination before they are removed. Fill in

    • the date of removalin the record.

    • Notify the RPO (NN phone xxxxxx if contamination is detected)

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


    Local rules 6

    LOCAL RULES 6

    Department of Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    Radiation Protection Manual

    RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Sealed sources

    Flood sources, anatomical markers, check sources

    • Move the used source to the room for interim storage of waste (no 01:24

    • located in the basement). The key to the room is kept by the Chief

    • Technician

    • Fill in the record (source id no and today's date)

    • The final disposal of the source is handled by the RPO (NN, phone

    • xxxxxx)

    Part 10. Radioactive waste


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