As recently as February 2007, U.S. scholar, Brian Delay, (PhD Harvard University), identified the Lower Rio Grande, South Texas as an established region of Nde’ (Apache) community. Specifically, Delay identifies that during the struggle between the nations of Mexico and the U.S., Lipan Apache had already established communities all along the Rio Grande river, (the current MX-US International Boundary). Delay also identifies the Chiricahua Apache and Mescalero Apache established presence and confluences in Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, West Texas, and throughout the Lower Rio Grande. This map offers a critical, contemporary understanding of colonization, migration, and territorial patterns of Nde’ people which anchors our bi-national and international discourse of indigeneities fragmented and fractured by U.S. militarism and empire building in the region over 150 years.
Nde’ (Apache) People Communities, Lower Rio Grande, 17th-21st Centuries