Physical oceanography
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Physical Oceanography. Unit II. Physical Oceanography. Physical oceanography is the study of the properties of seawater. There are 4 main topics: Temperature Salinity Density Pressure. Temperature.

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Physical oceanography1
Physical Oceanography

  • Physical oceanography is the study of the properties of seawater.

  • There are 4 main topics:

    • Temperature

    • Salinity

    • Density

    • Pressure


Temperature
Temperature

  • Water has the highest specific heat (heat capacity) of any liquid: a high amount of energy is needed to raise or lower the temperature of water.

  • As a result, sea water takes a long time to heat up or cool down.



Temperature and depth
Temperature and Depth of water.

  • Temperature decreases with depth, but not at a constant rate.

  • On our coast, the surface temperature fluctuates with the season, and the temperature changes only a few degrees from the surface to about 200 m deep.



Permanent thermocline
Permanent Thermocline influenced by the sun and temperature drops very rapidly until about 1000 m.

  • The average ocean temperature is about 4ºC and the average surface temperature is about 18ºC.

  • In the tropics, day and night are about equal in length and the surface temperature rarely falls below 25ºC.

  • In the Arctic, winter nights are long, so water loses a lot of its heat resulting in ice formation.


Methods of temperature measurement
Methods of Temperature Measurement influenced by the sun and temperature drops very rapidly until about 1000 m.

  • Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT)

    It is launched from a ship. It records temperature as it falls and depth (by measuring density).



2. m).Niskin Bottles

  • Used for collecting water samples from various depths.

  • Usually arranged in a rosette of up to 36 bottles. Lowered to maximum depth, then pulled up slowly, taking samples in a series as it is raised.



3. temperature.Infra-red Photography

  • From airplane or satellite, for measuring surface temperature over a wide area (ex: North Atlantic on July 15), then colorized.

    4. Stationary and Drifting Buoys

  • Data often includes surface and subsurface water temperatures, air pressure, air temperature, wind speed and direction.


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