Crustal deformation and mountain building
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Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building. Behavior of rocks to stress & strain. Elastic Elastic limit Plastic Brittle. Stress. Strain. FOLDS. Anticline vs. syncline Hinge line (axis) Limb Axial plane Plunging fold Structural dome Structural basin. FOLDS. Interpreting folds

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Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building

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Crustal deformation and mountain building

Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building


Behavior of rocks to stress strain

Behavior of rocks to stress & strain

  • Elastic

    • Elastic limit

  • Plastic

  • Brittle

Stress

Strain


Folds

FOLDS

  • Anticline vs. syncline

    • Hinge line (axis)

    • Limb

    • Axial plane

  • Plunging fold

  • Structural dome

  • Structural basin


Folds1

FOLDS

  • Interpreting folds

    • Open fold

    • Isoclinal fold

    • Overturned fold

    • Recumbent fold


Faults

Faults

  • Fractures in rock

  • Normal Faults

  • Reverse fault

    • Thrust fault- low angle reverse fault

  • Strike-Slip fault

    • Left-lateral vs. right-lateral


Introduction

Introduction

  • Mountain

  • Major mountain belts

  • Mountain range


Characteristics of major mountain belts

Characteristics of Major Mountain Belts

  • Size and Alignment

    • Along continental margin

    • Long, arcuate chains

  • Ages of Mountain Belts and Continents

    • Youngest tend to be higher

      • Himalayas vs Appalachians

    • Craton- Oldest Continental Crust

      • Precambrian Shield


Characteristics of major mountain belts1

Characteristics of Major Mountain Belts

  • Patterns of Flooding and Faulting

    • Fold and Thrust Belts

      • Crustal Shortening

      • Crustal Thickening

  • Metamorphism and Plutonism

  • Normal Faulting


Crustal deformation and mountain building

Rifting

Subduction

Volcanism

Accretionary wedge

Plutonism

Orogeny

Subduction

Crustal Shortening &

Thickening

Collision

Major Orogeny


Evolution of a mountain belt

Evolution of a Mountain Belt

  • Accumulation Stage of Sediments

    • Accumulation in an Opening Ocean Basin

    • Accumulation along a Convergent Boundary

      • Graywackes

      • Magmatic Arc

  • Mountain Building Event- Orogeny


Evolution of a mountain belt1

Evolution of a Mountain Belt

  • The Uplift and Block-faulting Stage

    • Isostacy

      • Isostatic Adjustment

    • Normal Faulting

      • Fault-block Mountain Range


The growth of continents

The Growth of Continents

  • Crust added by accumulation & igneous activity

  • Suspect and Exotic Terranes

    • Suspect terrane

    • Accreted terrane

      • Exotic terrane


Crustal deformation and mountain building

The Wilson cycle (named after J. Tuzo Wilson, one of the fathers of plate tectonics) refers to the cycle of ocean basin formation by rifting and seafloor spreading followed by ocean basin destruction and mountain building by subduction.


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