Chronic pelvic pain
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Chronic pelvic pain. Presented by: DR Afsar tabatabai. Definition. Nonmenstrual pain of 6 months duration or greater, localized to the pelvis, anterior abdominal wall below the pelvis, or lower back, severe enough to result in functional disability or require medical or surgical treatment.

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Chronic pelvic pain

Chronic pelvic pain

Presented by: DR Afsartabatabai


Definition

Definition

  • Nonmenstrual pain of 6 months duration or greater, localized to the pelvis, anterior abdominal wall below the pelvis, or lower back, severe enough to result in functional disability or require medical or surgical treatment.


Putative pelvic pain states

Putative Pelvic Pain States

  • Adhesions

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID),

  • endometriosis

  • inflammatory bowel disease

  • prior surgery

  • Painful bladders syndrome

  • Uterian originated pains

  • Psychological problems


Adhesions

Adhesions

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or prior surgery may cause adhesions; yet, in up to 50% of cases, there may be no significant antecedent event

  • while some case series have shown benefit to adhesiolysis, others have shown no treatment benefit;


Endometriosis

Endometriosis

  • little correlation between the extent of disease present and the degree of pain

  • several appearances ranging from the more typical powder burn,blue-gray lesions to atypical lesions that may be clear, red, or white.

  • Associated Symptoms :

  • cyclic pelvic pain

  • dysmenorrhea.

  • Tenesmus involving the rectosigmoid colon.

  • dyspareunia or ovarian mass (endometrioma).

  • Pain may precede the menses, occur with menses, and continue after menses


Endometriosis1

Endometriosis

  • Treatment:

  • First line NSAIDs,OCP

  • Danazol,GnRH agonists

  • No response to conservative treatment surgery


Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

  • can be a cause of acute pain, or even asymptomatic.

  • mechanisms for pain:

  • inflammation and distension of the fallopian tubes.

  • hydrosalpinx will sometimes persist for months or years and may cause CPP.


Myofascial pain mfps

Myofascial Pain(MFPS)

  • common in patients with a history of trauma or multiple surgeries and is often overlooked as a cause for CPP.

  • Patterns of pain:

  • localized, reproducible, hyperirritable trigger points within a muscle

  • Treatment:

  • icing, stretching exercises, and injection with local anesthesia,physical therapy


Pelvic varicosity pain syndrome

Pelvic Varicosity Pain Syndrome

  • worsen throughout the day

  • Dyspareunia

  • Post coital pain

  • Mechanism:

  • Increasing in vein diameters

  • substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide

  • Treatment:

  • GnRH agonists

  • Medroxiprogesteron acetate

  • surgery


Painful bladder syndrome

Painful Bladder Syndrome

characterized by urgency, frequency, or pain in the absence of a urinary tract infection or malignancy.

  • Diagnosis:

    distending the bladder cystoscopically under anesthesia

  • Treatment:

    diet, exercise, smoking cessation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, bladder training, medications, bladder distention, or bladder instillation.


Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

  • (Rome III criteria):

    - recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort that is present for at least 3 months

    - with onset at least 6 months previous

    and at least two of the following clinical features:

    (a) improvement with defecation

    (b) onset associated with a change in frequency of stool

    (c) onset associated with a change in the form (appearance) of stools.


Irritable bowel syndrome1

Irritable bowel syndrome

  • Mechanism:

  • visceral hyperalgesia

  • infection

  • imbalance of neurotransmitters

  • psychologic factors

  • Treatment:

  • Treating symptoms

  • In pain prodominance: tricyclic antidepressants, NSAIDs, anticholinergics, calcium channel blockers, and in some cases opioids.


Ovarian remnant syndrome

Ovarian Remnant Syndrome

  • a history of extensive endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory processes resulting in a technically difficult oophorectomy

  • DX:

  • FSH,LH are at normal range.

  • Ultrasonography

  • Treatment:

  • Surgery(removing all ovarian tissue….)


Residual ovary syndrome

Residual Ovary Syndrome

  • Mechanism:

  • cyclical expansion of the ovary encased in adhesions

  • chronic lower abdominal pain, dyspareunia, and radiation of pain to the back or anterior thigh

  • A tender mass may be palpated on bimanual exam

  • Treatment:

  • Bilateral oophorectomy


Pain of uterine origin

Pain of Uterine Origin

  • Adenomyosis

  • Chronic endometritis

  • Degenerating leiomyomata

  • PVPS

  • Cervical stenosis

  • Intrauterine contraceptive device

  • Hysterectomy may be indicated in the absence of pathology in patients who have concluded childbearing and who have not responded to conservative therapy


Psychological problems

Psychological problems

  • Consider:

  • Depression

  • Panic attack

  • Anxiety


History and physical exam

History and Physical Exam

  • Characterists:What does the pain feels like? (sharp, dull, crampy, etc.)

  • Onset: Was the pain onset sudden or gradual? Is it cyclic or constant?

  • Location:Is the pain localized or diffuse?

  • Duration:How long has the pain been present, and how has it changed over time?

  • Exacerbation:What activities or movements make the pain worse?

  • Relief:What medication, activities, and positions make the pain better?

  • Radiation:Does the pain radiate anywhere (back, groin, flank, etc.)?


Cyclic causes for chronic pelvic pain

Cyclic Causes for Chronic Pelvic Pain

  • Adenomyosis

  • Endometriosis

  • IBS

  • Mittelschmerz

  • Ovarian remnant syndrome

  • PVPS


Gastrointestinal causes for chronic pelvic pain

Gastrointestinal Causes for Chronic Pelvic Pain.

  • CholecystitisChronic appendicitisConstipationDiverticulitisIBSInflammatory bowel diseaseIntermittent bowel obstructionNeoplasmPseudomembranous enterocolitisUlcer (duodenal, gastric)


Urologic causes for chronic pelvic pain

Urologic Causes for Chronic Pelvic Pain

  • Bacterial cystitisDetrusor dyssynergiaNeoplasmPBS (interstitial cystitis)Radiation cystitisUrethral caruncleUrethral diverticulumUrethral syndromeUrolithiasis


Treatment

treatment

  • NSAID

  • Anti convalsants

  • Anti depressents

  • Narcotics


Thank you

thank you

thank you


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